1 liners from previous exams...

Discussion in 'AIIMS Nov 2013' started by samuel, Aug 20, 2014.

  1. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Viruses - Functional binding receptor
    SARS Virus - Angiotensin converting enzyme-2..
    measles - CD 46 and CDw150 (SLAM - Signalling Leukocytes Activating Molecule ).
    polio virus - CD 155..
    Hepatitis C - CD 81...
  2. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Bentall's operation-aortic root aneurysm

    capacity of renal pelvis-7ml

    t/t of thyroid dermopathy-steroid

    tear drop bladder-extraperitoneal rupture of bladder

    plastibel device used in-circumcision

    Mc site of stricture following TURP-navicular fossa

    Mc site of urethral carcinoma-bulbomembranous junction

    pfannenstiel incision-prostate surgery

    polychronotropism shown by-urothelial tumour

    star chart used in t/t of-nocturnal enuresis

    IPSS score-benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Mc organism causing emphasematous cystitis-E.coli

    Mini chromosome maintenance protein useful to detect-bladder cancer

    Mc neoplasm of infancy-mesoblastic nephroma

    first uretric autotransplant done by-hardy

    presenting symptom of sibsons hernia-neck mass

    Bordels line related to which artery-renal artery

    Meteorism-renal trauma

    dietl's crisis-pelviureteric junction obstruction

    steinstrasse-uretric obstruction due to stone fragments in ureter
  3. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Uterine compression suture for PPH ---> B-Lynch

    Other sutures :
    Hayman
    Cho square
    Gunshella
  4. samuel

    samuel New Member

    First autologous renal transplantation was performed by --> Hardy (in 1963).

    Its a renal autotransplantation, usually to iliac fossa for reconstructing the urinary tract.
  5. samuel

    samuel New Member

    axial length of eyeball at birth is ---% of adult eye-70%

    tonography-helps to determine facility of outflow of aqueous

    facility of aqueous outflow -0.28+/-0.05microliter/min/mmHg

    distant direct ophthalmoscopy done at-25cm distance

    Intravitreous injection of drug causing macular toxicity-aminoglycosides(gentamycin)

    first symptom of sympathetic ophthalmitis-photophobia

    first sign of sympathetic ophthalmitis -keratic precipitate

    critical period for development of fixation reflex-2-4 month
  6. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Property pot skull, arrow head /tufted phalanges seen in primary hyper parathyroidism
    Rugger Jersey spine in secondary hyper parathyroidism
  7. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Dopplers in OBG

    1.Uterine artery- -
    A. PIH screening →persistence of diastolic notch after 20 wk
    B. Diagnosis of fetal hypoxia →reduced<absent <reversed diastolic flow

    2.Middle cerebral artery- -
    A.IUGR
    B. Rh isoimmunisation →peak systolic velocity > 1.5 -give intrauterine transfusion

    3. Ductus venosus- -
    Abnormal flow suggests down's along with ↑nuchal translucency & nasal bone hypoplasia
  8. samuel

    samuel New Member

    fine touch - Dorsal or posterior columns
    vs
    crude touch - Ant Spinothalamic tract

    M/c site of adamantinoma --> tibia diaphysis

    M/c site of ameloblastoma --> jaw

    Lipoma of corpus callosum --> Bracket calcification on skul x-ray

    Sturge weber syndrome --> tramline calcification
  9. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Ivermectin inhibits glutamate gated chloride channels and other ligand gated chloride channels
    Used in scabies
    Pediculosis
    Onchocerciasis
  10. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Koenen's tumor seen in --> Tuberous sclerosis.

    Periungual papules or nodules are seen.

    C1 & C2 best visualised by --> odontoid view.


    C7 & T1 --> swimmer's veiw.

    Egg on side or egg on string appearance --> transposition of great vessels. (on X-ray)

    stauffers syndrome - non metastatic hepatic dysfuntion asso vt RCC
  11. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Keshan's ds --> d/t deficiency of selenium.
    [Mn. Kesha n Selena]


    Menkes kinky hair syndrome(X linked R) --> Cu deficiency.

    Bosentan --> endothelial receptor antagonist used in Pul HTN.

    Kohler dz - navicular

    Perthe - femur head

    Scheurmann dz- ring
    epiphysis of vertebrae

    Calves dz- central bony nucleas of vertebrae

    Frieberg - 2nd metatarsal head

    Islene- 5th
    metatarsal head

    Osgood shaltter's dz -
    tibial tuberocity

    Severe 's dz-
    calcaneum

    Johanson- Larsens dz - lower pole of patella

    Blounts dz- Tibia

    Panner's dz -
    capitulum of elbow

    Preiser's Synd - Scaphoid

    Schmier 's Dz- Pisiform

    Witt' s dz- triquetrum

    Agati dz - trapazoid

    Haglund dz - calcaneus

    Fleischner Thiemann
    dz- phalanges

    Haas dz - head of
    humerus

    Konig' s Synd -
    tubular bones

    Wegner Synd - osteochondritis with epiphyseal seperation
  12. samuel

    samuel New Member

    MOST POTENT GLUCOCORTICOID- BETAMETHASONE

    LEAST POTENT GLUCOCORTICOID- CORTISONE

    MAX GLUCOCORTICOID ACTIVITY- DEXAMETHASONE

    GLUCOCORTICOID WITH MAXIMUM MINERULOCORTICOID ACTIVITY- HYDROCORTISONE

    SELECTIVE GLUCOCORTICOID( WITH NO MINERULOCORTICOID ACTIVITY)- METHYLPREDNISALONE, TRIAMSALONE, PARAMETHASONE, DEXAMETHASONE, BETAMETHASONE


    MINERULOCORTICOIDS

    MOST POTENT MINERULOCORTICOID- FLUDROCORTISONE

    MAX MINERULOCORTICOID ACTIVITY- ALDROSTERONE

    SELECTIVE MINERULOCORTICOID ACTION ( WITH NO GLUCOCORTICOID ACTION)- DOCA
  13. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Box shaped heart - Ebstein's anomaly
    vs
    Boot shaped heart - TOF

    cold spots in MI - Thallium scan
    vs
    Hot spots in MI are detected with - Tc 99 scan (technetium)
  14. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Goldenhar's syndrome :

    1)Craniofacial feature - malar hypoplasia, micrognathia, malformed ear with preauricular tags.

    2)Vertebral anamolies
  15. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Invasive Aspergillosis - Air Crescent Sign
    vs
    Aspergilloma - Monad sign


    Menicus sign - hydatid cyst of lung , intussception
    vs
    Carman meniscus sign - malignant gastric ulcer
  16. samuel

    samuel New Member

    M/c asso. cardiac anamoly with coarctation of aorta --> bicuspid aortic valve.


    Shone complex --> coarctation of aorta + left sided obstructive lesion (M.valve abnormality and subaortic stenosis)
  17. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Triad of wernicke's encephalopathy :
    1) Confusion (global)
    2) Ophthalmoplegia (3rd & 6th n. palsy and nystagmus)
    3) Ataxia
  18. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Normal pressure hydrocephalus triad :

    1) Dementia
    2) Abnormal gait (ataxic or apractic)
    3) Incontinance (urinary)
  19. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Temporal arteritis --> worsen on exposure to cold

    Multiple sclerosis --> worsen on exposure to heat.

    Triad of tuberous sclerosis :

    1) Epilepsy
    2) Mental retardation
    3) Adenoma sebacium
  20. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Biondi ring tangles --> intracellular inclusion bodies seen in choroidal epithelial cells of the choroidal plexus.

    May be found in
    1. Elderly with aging brains
    2. Alzheimer's ds
  21. samuel

    samuel New Member

    FDA approved drugs for Alzheimer's disease :
    Donepezil
    Rivastigmine-Q
    Galantamine
    and Tacrine.

    Q-Rivastigmine should NOT be given with TCAs bcoz it is counter productive combination.
  22. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Constrictive pericarditis --> ventricular diastolic pressure show 'dip and plateau' pattern or 'square root sign'


    Also show Tapping apex or Broad Bent's sign.
    (apical pulse is reduced and retracts in systole)
  23. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Rickets :

    Craniotabes (earliest manifestation)
    Caput quadratum or Hot cross-bun skull

    Rachitic cat back

    Bone pain and tenderness (m/c manifestation)

    String of pearls deformity (phalanges and metacarpals)

    Windswept deformity

    Double malleoli sign

    Genu valgum (knock knee)

    Earliest radiological changes seen around Wrist.

    T/t. --> Stoss regimen

    virulence factors commonly asked:

    Protien A - Staph Aureus (binds Fc region of Igs)
    vs
    IgA proteases - Strep pneumoniae (cleaves IgA)
    vs
    Protien M - Strep Pyogenes
  24. samuel

    samuel New Member

    neural tube defect --> high acetylcholinesterase,,,,, low Pseudocholinesterase


    ventral wall defects --> high Pseudocholinesterase,,,,,low acetylcholinesterase
  25. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis :

    Electron micrscopy --> Birbeck granules in cytoplasm (tennis racket app.)

    Immunohistochemistry --> CD1a, CD207 (langerin)
  26. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Appearance of amyloid :

    Electron microscopy --> nonbranching fibrils of infinite length and diameter of 7.5-10 mm.

    X-ray crystallography --> cross B pleated sheet conformation.
  27. samuel

    samuel New Member

    amyloid stained by congo red.

    primary amylodosis _amyloid light chain ( from plasma cells)
    secondary amyloidosis _amylod assoc protein (from reticulo endothelial cells of liver)
    hemo dialysis associated_beta 2 microglobulin
    carpel tunnel syndrome in a longterm dialysis patient commonly due to amyloid deposition
  28. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Q fever coxiella Burnett I
    Epidemic typhus rick prowazekii
    Endemic typhus rick typhi


    Visceral leishmanisis Kala azar. Donovani
    Cutaneous leishmanisis oriental sore ___tropica
    Muco cutaneous leishmaniasis ___ braziliensis
  29. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Prehn's sign ---> pain relief with lifting the affected testicle, which points towards epididymitis.

    differentiates it from acute pain of torsion where this test is negative.

    Initial IOC for post cholecystectomy stricture --> MRCP

    Imaging method of choice for post operative biliary stricture --> PTC
  30. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Diverticulosis mainly involve left side of colon
    but bleeding occurs mostly from right side. (Superior mesentric A.)

    Dietel's crisis --> after an attack of acute renal pain, a swelling in the loin is found. Following passage of urine the pain is relieved and swelling disappears.
  31. samuel

    samuel New Member

    HLA DR 3/DR 4 - type 1 diabetes

    HLA DR 4 - rheumatoid arthritis

    HLA - B 5 - bechets syndrome

    HLA B27 - ankylosing spondylitis

    HLA B 27 - post gonococcal arthritis

    HLA B 27 - acute anterior uveitis

    HLA DQ2, DQ8 - coeliac disease

    HLA DR 3 - type 1 diabetes, sjogren syndrome
  32. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Wilm's tr :

    Pre-chemotherapy staging system --> by National wilms tr study grp. (NWTSG)

    Post-chemotherapy staging system --> by International society of pediatric oncology (SIOP)
  33. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Urethral Ca :

    M/c site --> Bulbomembranous urethra f/b penile urethra

    M/c histological type --> Sq. cell f/b transitional cell.

    Grading methods used to evaluate prognosis after SAH :

    1. Hess and Hunt scale

    2. World federation of neurological societies (WFNS) scale [based on GCS]

    ANTI dote of heparin overdose - protamine sulfate

    anti dote of warfarin overdose - vitamin k
  34. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Liver abscess with endopthalmitis-klebsiella(in diabetics)

    Primary spermatocyte-Diploid. Secondary spermatocyte-Haploid

    Meiosis-1 : "JUST BEFORE OVULATION ". Meiosis-2 : "SOON AFTER FERTILIZATION"

    Zona Pellucida-prevents further entry of spermatozoa , Aids in implantation of blastocyst

    COMBINED OC-pills uses : "F A C E B O O K " F-fibroids reduction. A-Acne reduction,Anemia reduction by preventing excess menstrual bleeding C-contraception,Colon cancer prevention. E-endometriosis reduction,endometrial cancer reduction. B-benign breast disease reduction O-Ovarian cancer reduction. O-Osteoporosis treatment. K- Koch's (PID-mcc is TB) reduction

    Uses of Progestin only Pills ( Mini Pills) : "C . D E E P T H I ". C-contraception D-DUB,Dysmenorrhoea, E-Endometriosis. E-Endometrial Carcinoma. P-Pre Menstrual Tension ( DOC-fluoxetine). T-Threatened abortion. H-HRT(hormone replacement therapy). I-Infertility treatment
  35. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Few CD's
    CD1a---Langerhans cell histiocytosis
    CD117---GIST
    CD15 & CD30---Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis --> cd1a, cd207(langerin)

    Granulocytic sarcoma --> cd43, MPO, lysozyme

    Hairy cell leukemia --> cd 103(unique), HC 2+, cd25, cd116
  36. samuel

    samuel New Member

    FACIES TYPES
    Mask like-parkinsonism
    Leonine-leprosy
    Mouse facies - CRF*
    Frog like facies-ethmoidal polyps,NP angiofibroma..
    Gargoyle facies - Hurler's syndro
    Meflat facies - Down's syndrome
    Moon face- Cushingoid facies
    Ashen Grey facies - Myocardial infarction*
    Potter facies-Oligohydromnia
  37. samuel

    samuel New Member

    GOODPASTURE SYNDROME

    1.Triad of Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage+rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis+anti-GBM antibodies(90%cases).

    2.Type 2 hypersensitivity,HLA-DR2.
    3.Antibody against - alpha-3 NC1 domain of collagen IV(Chromosome 2).
    1/3rd patients with anti-GBM glomerulonephritis have no evidence
    of lung injury.
    4.C/F-hemoptysis,dyspnea,anemia,fever,hematuria.
    5.Xray- Diffuse alveolar damage,B/L Infiltrates.
    6.Gold standard – Biopsy-Focal/segmental necrosis,Crescent formation in Bowman’s space
    7.Immunoflourescence- Linear IgG and C3,
    10-15% cases P-ANCA positive.Normal complements.

    8,The diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide is markedly increased.
    Poor Prognosis – (a)>50%crescents on biopsy,(b)serum Creatinine>5-6mg/dl(c)Oliguria.

    9.TT-8-10 treatments of Plasmapheresis+oral prednisolone and cyclophosphamide in first 2 wks

    10.After tt Antibodies should fall in 6 months
  38. samuel

    samuel New Member

    RMP is mainly determined by effluent of k ions
    RMP in
    skeletal & cardiac muscle -90 mv,
    Smooth muscle -50 mv,
    SA node -60 mv,
    Nerve finer layer -70mv

    1. Omphalitis -> Lekocyte Adhesion Deficiency (CD 18 deficiency in integrins)

    Gigantic Granules in Neutrophils -> Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (microtubules disorder-> no degranulation bc of failure of phagolysosomes formation)

    Recurrent Candida albicans Infections -> Myeloperoxidase Deficiency (immunodeficiency)

    Nitroblue Tetrazolium test NEGATIVE (yellow=abnormal=negative test) -> Chronic Granulomatous Disease (NADPH oxidase deficiency, no respiratory burst, catalase+ recurrent infections)
  39. samuel

    samuel New Member

    * Li-Fraumeni syndrome is characterized by:

    wide variety of cancer types.
    young age at onset of malignancies.
    potential for multiple primary sites of cancer.

    * The following 3 criteria must be met for a diagnosis

    A proband diagnosed with sarcoma when younger than 45 years
    A first-degree relative with any cancer diagnosed when younger than 45 years
    Another first-degree or second-degree relative of the same genetic lineage with any cancer diagnosed when younger than 45 years or sarcoma diagnosed at any age

    * Wide range of malignancies, with particularly high occurrences of breast cancer, brain tumors,acute leukemia, soft tissue sarcomas, bone sarcomas, and adrenal cortical carcinoma.
  40. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Most Common facts about infectious diseases
    1. Most common cause of septic arthritis in a person less than 40 years old = Gonococcus

    2. Most common cause of osteomyelitis in general population = S. aureus

    3. Most common cause of osteomyelitis in Sickle Cell patients = Salmonella

    4. Most common cause of osteomyelitis due to nail-puncture wounds = Pseudomonas (V.Imp!)

    5. Most common parasitic infection of the brain = Neurocysticercosis
  41. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Cluster headache

    severe unilateral pain, often orbital
    lacrimation, red eye, nasal congestion + rhinorrhoea
    occasionally ptosis + horner’s syndrome
    1 or more per day, for several weeks, then subside before recurring
    patient is restless, affects men>women (6x), alcohol may be trigger
    Acute —> 100% oxygen, sumatriptan
    Long term —> verapamil, lithium
  42. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Picrotoxin --> Inhibits presynaptic inhibition.

    Local anasthesia do not affect presynaptic inhibition.

    Weber Fechner law --> magnitude of sensation felt is proportionate to the 'log of intensity' of the stimulus.

    Thrombosthenin --> contractile protein found in platelets. It helps platelets to contract during clot formation.

    Other contractile proteins found in platelets are Actin and Myosin.
  43. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Thrombin inhibitors in normal plasma

    1. Antithrombin ||| (m/imp)
    2. Alpha2 macroglobulin
    3. Heparin cofactor ||
    4. Alpha1 antitrypsin
  44. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Siggard-Anderson curve normogram --> used to plot Acid-Base characteristic of arterial blood.

    PCO2 on vertical axis,
    pH on horizontal axis.

    Apparent mineralocorticoid excess --> d/t inhibition or absence of 11 B hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2.

    HIV detection :

    1) nucleic acid test --> +ve in 12 days
    2) p24 Ag test -------> +ve in 16 days
    3) Ab test ------------> +ve in 22 days.

    M/c/c of Larva migrans :

    Cutaneous --> Ankylostoma braziliense & A.caninum.
    Visceral -----> Toxocara canis.
  45. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Sherrington's law of reciprocal innervation --> Increase flow of innervation to the contracting ms is accompanied by decreased flow of innervation(reciprocal inhibition) to the antagonistic ms.

    Herring's law of equal innervation --> Equal and simultaneous innervation flows from the brain to a pair of yolk ms.

    Ophthalmoplegic migrain --> Headache asso. with 3rd, 4th, & 6th N palsy.

    Part of sarcomere which remains constant during skeltal muscle contraction-----A band

    Cystoid macular edema :

    Ophthalmoscopy --> honeycomb app of macula

    Fundus flourescein angiography--> Flower petal app.
  46. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Pathergy phenomenon

    Pathergy phenomenon is most commonly described in pyoderma gangrenosum and Behcet's disease, and is also noted in some cases of sweet's syndrome and subcorneal pustular dermatosis. Heavy neutrophlic infiltrates or pustular reaction that develop at the site of non-specific trauma are termed as pathergy phenomenon. Pathergy phenomenon is tested by the pathergy test, and it refers to the development of a new lesion at the site of eliciting the test. An erythematous papule of more than 2 mm at the prick site with a 20-22-gauge needle (to avascular skin obliquely to the depth of 5 mm following an intradermal injection of 0.1 ml of normal saline) is called as a positive pathergy test. Positive pathergy is regarded as one of the minor criteria for the diagnosis of Behcet's disease by the International Study Group Diagnostic criteria for Behcet's disease.


    Meirowsky phenomenon

    Meirowsky in 1909 discovered that pieces of fresh human skin showed irreversible darkening of the epidermal melanin if heated. This type of heat darkening came to be known as the
    Meirowsky phenomenon. Meirowsky phenomenon is among the first responses of human skin to ultraviolet (UV) exposure. It is also called as immediate pigment darkening (IPD). IPD is more pronounced within a few hours of sun exposure, and is due to metabolic changes coupled with the redistribution of melanin already present in the skin. The phenomenon is seen after exposure to long-wave UVB, UVA and, to some extent, visible radiation. IPD is not photo protective as it does not lead to a hardening effect as seen in delayed tanning
  47. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Mauserung phenomenon

    In 1937, Siemens reported a family with features similar to, but distinct from, bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma of Brocq (BCIE). This variant has been termed ichthyosis bullosa of Siemens (IBS), and has been reported to be distinguished clinically from BCIE by the absence of erythroderma, localization of dark grey hyperkeratosis to the flexural sites and areas of peeling of the skin among hyperkeratotic areas known as the "mauserung" phenomenon.

    A distinctive characteristic of IBS, which is not present in the other forms of ichthyosis, is called the "mauserung" phenomenon (mauserung is German for "moulting"). These are small patches of bare, apparently normal skin (due to regeneration of the epidermis) in the middle of areas of hyperkeratosis
  48. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Lubiprostone --> used for chronic constipation.

    Act by
    1. Stimuating Cl- channel opening in the intestine
    2. Increasing liquid secretion in gut
    3. Decreasing transit time.
  49. samuel

    samuel New Member

    The manta ray sign is a radiographic appearance in bladder exstrophy. It describes wide midline separation of the pubic bones simulating the appearance of a manta ray swimming towards you 1. The smooth arc of the pelvis outline in bladder exstrophy is in contrast to acquired separation of the pubic symphysis seen in open book pelvic injuries.
  50. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Fishtail deformity of the elbow is characterised by a contour abnormality of the distal humerus, which develops when the lateral trochlear ossification centres fails to develop or resorbs.
    It is an uncommon complication usually following a distal humeral fracture in childhood. Whilst initially presumed to be a benign condition, long-term follow-up suggests that patients with fishtail deformity are prone to:
    functional impairment
    ongoing pain and
    the development of early osteoarthrosis.

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