1 liners from previous exams...

Discussion in 'AIIMS Nov 2013' started by samuel, Aug 20, 2014.

  1. samuel

    samuel New Member

    A fish vertebra (or codfish vertebra) describes the biconcave appearance of lumbar vertebrae in patients with
    sickle cell disease.
    hereditary spherocytosis
    renal osteodystrophy
    thalassemia major(rarely)
  2. samuel

    samuel New Member

    A strawberry gallbladder refers to the surface appearance (not shape) of the mucosa of the gallbladder due to multiple small collections of triglycerides and cholesterol esters within the lamina propria of the gallbladder wall.
    Strawberry gallbladder represents diffuse cholesterolosis and is a common, idiopathic, non-neoplastic condition.

    A strawberry shaped skull is a feature that can be seen in trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome) and refers to the shape of the head. It is thought to relate to hypoplasia of the frontal lobes.
  3. samuel

    samuel New Member

    The bird-beak sign is used to refer to the tapering of the inferior oesophagus inachalasia. The same appearance (although it is difficult to see the similarity) is also referred to as the rat-tail sign.

    The hockey stick sign refers to the hyperintense signal involving the pulvinar and dorsomedial thalamic nuclei bilaterally on FLAIR, in cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), which has the shape of a hockey stick.
    The hockey stick sign is also used sometimes to describe thyroid hemiagenesis.

    The bear's paw sign is seen in xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis and refers to the cross-sectional appearance of the kidney which is said to resemble the paw of a bear. The renal pelvis is contracted whereas the calyces are dilated, mimicking the toe-pads of the paw.
  4. samuel

    samuel New Member

    There are many bull's eye signs, also referred to as target signs:
    red bone marrow located in shaft of long bone with central yellow marrow on MRI
    peripheral plexiform neurofibromas on MRI
    intussusception: see target sign of intussusception
    choledocholithiasis: see target sign of choledocholithiasis
    cerebral metastases
    cerebral abscess
    barium studies 2
    aphthoid ulcers - earliest lesion seen in Crohn's disease on barium enema
    gastic lymphoma with central ulceration 4
    GIST with central ulceration
    hematogenous gastric metastases
    gastric adenocarcinoma with central ulceration
    lung granuloma
    lyme disease
    target sign of haematoma on MRI (also called concentric ring sign on MRI)
    also described in tears of deep tendon of rectus femoris in athletes
  5. samuel

    samuel New Member

    The anteater nose sign refers to an anterior tubular prolongation of the superior calcaneus which approaches or overlaps the navicular on a lateral radiograph of the foot. This fancifully resembles the nose of an anteater and is an indication of calcaneonavicular coalition 1-2.

    Bat's wing or butterfly pulmonary opacities refer to a pattern of bilateral perihilar shadowing.
    It is classically described on a frontal chest radiograph but can also refer to appearances on chest CT 3-4.
    Bat's wing pulmonary opacities can be caused by
    pulmonary oedema (especially cardiogenic)
    aspiration pneumonia
    pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
    viral pneumonia
    lipoid pneumonia
    inhalation injury
    noxious gas
    pulmonary alveolar proteinosis 3
    pulmonary haemorrhage (e.g. Goodpasture syndrome)
    lymphoma / leukaemia
    bronchoalveolar carcinoma
  6. samuel

    samuel New Member

    The pulvinar sign refers to bilateral FLAIR hyperintensities involving the pulvinar thalamic nuclei. It is
    classically described in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). It is also described in other neurological conditions :
    Fabry disease (although the hyperintense signal is seen on T1WI)
    bilateral thalamic infarcts

    The claw sign is useful in determining whether a mass arises from a solid structure or is located adjacent to it and distorts the outline.
    It refers to the sharp angles on either side of the mass which the surrounding normal parenchyma forms when the mass has arisen from the parenchyma. As such, normal parenchyma extends some way around the mass.
  7. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Keratoconus :

    Distorted window reflex (corneal reflex)

    Slit lamp --> Fleisher's ring at base of cone, Vogt lines

    Retinoscopy --> yawning reflex (scissor reflex)

    Direct opthalmoscopy --> Oil droplet reflex

    Munson's sign (bulging of lower lid when pt looks down)
  8. samuel

    samuel New Member

    mech. of acute rheumatic fever-cross reactivity wid endog.ag

    urease positive organisms -

    P proteus
    U reaplasma
    N ocardia
    C cryptococcus
    H pylori
  9. samuel

    samuel New Member

    ectopic rest of normal tissue -choristoma

    abnormal tissue in normal site -hamartoma

    Interluekin characterstically produced byTH I response

    IL -2 AND IL -12

    M.c congenital infection- CMV
    most severe congenital infection- rubella

    Oprelvekin --> recombinant IL-11. Used for prevention and t/t of thrombocytopenia induced by cancer chemotherapy.
  10. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Q-the estimation of prevalence of blindness by blind school survey in place of population based survey would lead to.
    a- over estimation
    b-under estimation
    c-no difference
    d- data not sufficient
    please tell me answer?
  11. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Glucocorticoid causes sequestration of lymphocytes, eosinophils, monocytes and basophils in tissues, thus decrease circulating levels of these cells.
    Whereas circulating levels of neutriphils are increased d/t release from BM.

    Solar(actinic) keratosis --> t/t by liquid nitrogen.

    Alternative is topical 5-FU.

    Atkins diet --> severely reduced carbohydrate content.
  12. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Trotters triad seen in nasopharyngeal ca:
    Conductive deafness
    Temporo parietal neuralgia
    Palatal paralysis

    Cystic hygroma. Most common posterior triangle of the neck.

    Sx & Sclerotheraphy (bleomycin) are choice.... but no role of radiotherapy...

    Excision is choice for sx.

    Mc site of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma
    Posterior part of nasal cavity near sphenopalatine foramen
    Mc site of nasopharyngeal ca
    Fossa of rossenmueller
  13. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Area that lies immediately lateral to 'Anterior perforating substance' --> Limen insulae.

    Other lateral relation --> Lateral olfactory stria, Uncus.

    Medial relations --> Medial olfactory striae, Optic tract & optic chiasma.

    Causes of non cicatrical alopecia
    1. Androgenic
    2. Telogen effluvium
    3. Anagen effluvium
    4. Alopecia areata, totalis, universalis
    5. Traction alopecia
  14. samuel

    samuel New Member

    SSRIs are now 1st choice for

    1) Depression
    2) OCD
    3) Panic disorder
    4) Post traumatic stress disorder
    5) Premenstrual tension syndrome
    6) Bulimia .
  15. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Breslau's second life test --> organ tested are stomach and intestine.


    Active partner --> butch or dyke
    Passive partner --> femme

    Salmon patch on cornea --> interstitial keratitis.

    Salmon patch on retina --> non-proliferative sickle cell retinopathy.

    thrombospondin is protein present on all blood vessel to prevent thrombosis except brain
  16. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Shrinking lung seen in SLE

    joint spared in Rheumatoid arthritis DIP

    Joint spared in osteoarthritis WRIST ,MCP

    Pores of kohn --> alveoli communicate.

    Canals of lambert --> microcommunication in lungs.

    M/c hemorrhage in boxers --> Subdural

    Duret-Bernard hemorrhage --> seen in compression of brainstem during transtentorial herniation.

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