All india pre pg 2011 recall-exam on 9.1.11

Discussion in 'NEET 2013 All india Exam' started by Guest, Jan 8, 2011.

  1. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Q- Urethral crest is situated in:
    A. Prostatic urethra
    B. Membranous urethra
    C. Penile urethra
    D. Bulbar urethra

    Ans- prostatic urethra


    “Prostatic urethra
    The prostatic urethra (Fig. 75.7; see Fig. 75.14) is 3–4 cm in length and tunnels through the substance of the prostate, closer to the anterior than the posterior surface of the gland. It is continuous above with the preprostatic part and emerges from the prostate slightly anterior to its apex (the most inferior point of the prostate). Throughout most of its length the posterior wall possesses a midline ridge, the urethral crest, which projects into the lumen causing it to appear crescentic in transverse section.
    ----------------------- Gray's Anatomy, 40th Edition
  2. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Q- All of the following are affected in low radial nerve palsy except?
    A. Extensor carpi radialis longus
    B. Extensor carpi radialis brevis
    C. Finger extensors
    D. Sensation on dorsum of hand



    “Branches Radial Nerve

    • In the axilla, branches are given to the long and medial heads of the triceps, and the posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm is given off.
    • In the spiral groove , branches are given to the lateral and medial heads of the triceps and to the anconeus. The lower lateral cutaneous nerve of the arm supplies the skin over the lateral and anterior aspects of the lower part of the arm. The posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm runs down the middle of the back of the forearm as far as the wrist.
    • In the anterior compartment of the arm, after the nerve has pierced the lateral fascial septum, it gives branches to the brachialis, the brachioradialis, and the extensor carpi radialis longus muscles. It also gives articular branches to the elbow joint.
    ----------------------- Clinical Anatomy by regions, Richard S. Snell

    Q- Most common site of obstruction after TURP?
    A. Navicullar foss
    B. Bulb
    C. Prostatic membranous urethra
    D. Bladder neck

    Ans-bladder neck>bulbar stricture


    Bladder neck stenosis

    The incidence varies from 0.3% to 9.2%, usually after smaller glands (<30 g) are treated. Therefore, the indication for TURP in cases of smaller glands should be taken very seriously according to the criteria mentioned earlier. A prophylactic bladder neck incision at the end of the procedure may reduce the incidence, and. Treatment includes electrical, or preferably, laser incision of the bladder neck, and .

    Urethral stricture (meatal and bulbar combined)
    The rate of urethral stricture varies from 2.2% to 9.8% in the literature; there is no relationship to time periods (Table 4). There are two main reasons related to location:
    • --
    Meatal strictures usually occur because of an inappropriate relationship between the size of the instrument and the diameter of the urethral meatus.
    • --
    Bulbar strictures occur because insufficient isolation by the lubricant causes the monopolar current to leak.
    The gel should be applied carefully in the urethra and along the shaft of the resectoscope. The lubricant must be reapplied in cases of longer resection time. Moreover, high cutting current should be avoided. An internal urethrotomy must be performed before TURP if there are pre-existing meatal or urethral strictures

    “Bladder Neck Stricture
    Bladder Neck Stricture in 2–10%. Risk factors are a prostate volume, missing incision of the bladder neck, blood transfusions and poor micturition after resection.
    Urethral Stricture
    Urethral stricture in up to 10%; they can be avoided with a thin resection sheat (24 CH), limiting the time of the transurethral catheter and applying prophylactic antibiotics.
  3. Guest

    Guest Guest

    What is the normal function of the APOE gene?
    The APOE gene provides instructions for making a protein called apolipoprotein E. This protein combines with fats (lipids) in the body to form molecules called lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are responsible for packaging cholesterol and other fats and carrying them through the bloodstream. Apolipoprotein E is a major component of a specific type of lipoprotein called very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs). VLDLs remove excess cholesterol from the blood and carry it to the liver for processing. Maintaining normal levels of cholesterol is essential for the prevention of disorders that affect the heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular diseases), including heart attack and stroke.

    There are at least three slightly different versions (alleles) of the APOE gene. The major alleles are called e2, e3, and e4. The most common allele is e3, which is found in more than half of the general population.How are changes in the APOE gene related to health conditions?
    Alzheimer disease - increased risk from variations of the APOE gene
    The e4 version of the APOE gene increases an individual's risk for developing late-onset Alzheimer disease. People who inherit one copy of the APOE e4 allele have an increased chance of developing the disease; those who inherit two copies of the allele are at even greater risk. The APOE e4 allele may also be associated with an earlier onset of memory loss and other symptoms.

    It is not known how the APOE e4 allele is related to the risk of Alzheimer disease. However, researchers have found that this allele is associated with an increased number of protein clumps, called amyloid plaques, in the brain tissue of affected people. A buildup of toxic amyloid beta peptide and amyloid plaques may lead to the death of neurons and the progressive signs and symptoms of this disorder.

    It is important to note that people with the APOE e4 allele inherit an increased risk of developing Alzheimer disease, not the disease itself. Not all people with Alzheimer disease have the APOE e4 allele, and not all people who have this allele will develop the disease.

    other disorders - associated with the APOE gene
    Variants of apolipoprotein E have been studied extensively as risk factors for many different conditions. For example, APOE alleles have been shown to influence the risk of cardiovascular diseases. People who carry at least one copy of the APOE e4 allele have an increased chance of developing atherosclerosis, which is an accumulation of fatty deposits and scar-like tissue in the lining of the arteries. This progressive narrowing of the arteries increases the risk of heart attack and stroke.

    The APOE e2 allele has been shown to greatly increase the risk of a rare condition called hyperlipoproteinemia type III. Most people with this disorder have two copies of the APOE e2 allele, leading researchers to conclude that the e2 allele plays a critical role in the development of the condition. Hyperlipoproteinemia type III is characterized by increased blood levels of cholesterol, certain fats called triglycerides, and molecules called beta-very low-density lipoproteins (beta-VLDLs), which carry cholesterol and lipoproteins in the bloodstream. A buildup of cholesterol and other fatty materials can lead to the formation of small, yellow skin growths called xanthomas and the development of atherosclerosis.APOE gene variants have also been studied as a potential risk factor for age-related macular degeneration, an eye disease that is a leading cause of vision loss among older people worldwide. Some studies have suggested that having at least one copy of the APOE e4 allele may help protect against this disease or delay the onset of vision loss, while having at least one copy of the APOE e2 allele may increase the risk of this disease or cause symptoms to appear earlier. However, other studies have not found these associations. More research is needed to clarify what role, if any, APOE gene variants play in the development of age-related macular degeneration.

    Where is the APOE gene located?
    Cytogenetic Location: 19q13.2

    Molecular Location on chromosome 19: base pairs 45,409,038 to 45,412,649

    The APOE gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 19 at position 13.2.

    More precisely, the APOE gene is located from base pair 45,409,038 to base pair 45,412,649 on chromosome 19.

    See How do geneticists indicate the location of a gene? in the Handbook.

    Where can I find additional information about APOE?
    You and your healthcare professional may find the following resources about APOE helpful.

    •MedlinePlus - Health information (3 links)
    •Educational resources - Information pages
    Eurekah Bioscience Collection: Apolipoprotein E
    •Gene Reviews - Clinical summary
    •Gene Tests - DNA tests ordered by healthcare professionals (2 links)
    You may also be interested in these resources, which are designed for genetics professionals and researchers.

    •PubMed - Recent literature
    •OMIM - Genetic disorder catalog
    •Research Resources - Tools for researchers (5 links)
    What other names do people use for the APOE gene or gene products?
    •Apolipoproteins E
    See How are genetic conditions and genes named? in the Handbook.

    Where can I find general information about genes?
    The Handbook provides basic information about genetics in clear language.

    •What is DNA?
    •What is a gene?
    •How do genes direct the production of proteins?
    •How can gene mutations affect health and development?
    These links provide additional genetics resources that may be useful.

    •Genetics education
    •Human Genome Project
    •Resources for Genetic Researchers
    What glossary definitions help with understanding APOE?
    allele ; amyloid ; amyloid plaque ; apolipoprotein ; artery ; atherosclerosis ; cardiovascular ; cholesterol ; gene ; heart attack ; lipid ; lipoprotein ; low-density lipoproteins ; macular degeneration ; molecule ; neuron ; peptide ; plaque ; population ; protein ; risk factors ; sign ; symptom ; tissue ; toxic ; triglycerides ; xanthoma
  4. sujeetmishra

    sujeetmishra Guest

    cut off expected in aippg2011

    anyone having any irea about cut off in 2011 aipg. :roll:

Share This Page