Fmge important topics

Discussion in 'FMGE' started by Partha Sarkar, Dec 19, 2012.

  1. UPPER LIMB HIGH YIELD - VERY IMP points FOR MCI SCREENING TEST

    Most frequently fractured bone of body--------Clavicle
    Most frequently dislocated carpal bone---------Lunate
    Most frequently fracture carpal bone----------Scaphoid
    Name of fracture of distal radius that produces “dinner fork” appearance------- Colle’s fracture
    Nerve injured with fracture of surgical neck of humerus---------Axillary
    Nerve injured with fracture of medial humeral epicondyle--------Ulnar
    Nerve injured with fracture of shaft of humerus--------------Radial
    Nerve injured in wrist drop----------Radial
    Muscle that is chief flexor and chief extensor at shoulder joint ---------Deltoid
    Muscles innervated by axillary nerve----------Deltoid and teres minor
    Muscle that initiates abduction of arm---------Supraspinatus
    Most commonly torn tendon of rotator cuff-----------Supraspinatus
    Two muscles that rotate scapula for full abduction of arm-------Trapezius and serratus anterior
    Tendon that courses through shoulder joint---------Long head of biceps
    Chief supinator muscle of hand---------Biceps brachii
    Injury to what nerve causes winged scapula---------Long thoracic nerve
    spinal levels of axillary nerve---------C5 and C6
    Spinal levels to muscles of the hand--------C8 and T1
    Dermatome of thumb--------C6
    Nerve to thenar compartment----------Recurrent branch of Median
    Innervation of adductor pollicis---------Ulnar (deep br.)
    Innervation to all interosseous muscles-----------Ulnar (deep br.)
    Region affected by upper trunk injury of brachial plexus------------ Shoulder
    Region affected by lower trunk injury of brachial plexus -------Intrinsic hand muscles
    Nerve compressed with carpal tunnel syndrome-----------Median
    nerve affected by cubital tunnel syndrome----------Ulnar
    Paralysis of which muscles results in total “claw” hand----------Lumbricals
    Treatment for schistosomes--------.Praziquantel
    Treatment for clonorchis sinensis------------ praziquantel
    Treatment for pneumocystis carinii.---------- TMP-SMX
    Treatment for Chaga's disease?-------------- Nifurtimox
    Treatment for trypanosomiasis?-------------- Suramin (except chaga's, use nifurtimox)
    Firstline treatment for malaria------------?Chloroquine
  2. Neha Gupta

    Neha Gupta Active Member

    What's the drug of choice for Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Shigella spp? Ampicillin. Note those are all G+.
    What are the two penicillin-derived drugs that are extended spectrum for pseudomonas infections? Which one is first line and which one is more potent? - Ticarcillin (and its derivatives; Timentin) -- 1st line
    - Piperacillin (and its derivates w/ tazobactam; Zosyn) -- this is the broadest spectrum.
    What is the DOC to treat Clostridium Perfringens? what does this bacteria cause? Penicillin G. Bacteria causes gas gangrene.
    What is the DOC to treat treponema pallidum? What condition does the bacteria cause? Penicillin G
    Bacteria causes syphilis.
    What is the DOC to treat Listeria Monocytogenes sepsis and meningitis? ampicillin
    What is the DOC to treat MRSA? Vancomycin
    What is the DOC for surgical prophylaxis? Why? How is it administered? - Cefazolin
    - By injection
    Used b/c of high bone penetration, and because it's a good alternative to anti-staph penicillins in penicillin-allergic patients.
    What is the first line agent used to treat mixed intra-abdominal infections by Bacteroides? Cefoxitin (2nd Gen)
    What are the two first line agents used to treat H. influenzae infections? Ceftriaxone (3rd)
    Cefotoxime (3rd)
    Cephalosporins are the go-to drugs to treat meningitis except for meningitis caused by what bacteria? Listeria monocytogenes.
    What is the first line agent used to treat Clostridium tetani infections? Vancomycin.
    Which two cephalosporins are the first line agents used to treat Neisseria gonorrhoeae? - Ceftriaxone (3rd G)
    - Cefixime (3rd G)
    What cephalosporin is the first line agent used to treat Typhoid Fever due to salmonella? Ceftriaxone (Rocephin; 3rd G)
    What are the three first line agents used to treat penicillin-resistant pneumococci? Ceftriaxone (3rd G)
    Cefotaxime (3rd)
    Vancomycin
    What are the five first line agents used to treat systemic pseudomonas aeruginosa infections? Ticarcillin
    Piperacillin
    Ceftazidime (3rd)
    Cefepime (4th G)
    Tobramycin
    How do you treat antibiotic-induced enterocolitis d/t Staph or C diff? Why? - w/ Vancomycin PO
    - Because it's poorly absorbed orally and will therefore be very active against the G+ bacteria in the intestine causing the colitis.
    What's the DOC for Rickettsia? Doxycycline
    What's they DOC for Chlamydia? Doxycycline
    DOC for Ureaplasma Doxycycline
    DOC for Mycoplasma Doxycycline
    DOC for Borrelia Doxycycline
    DOC for Yersinia Streptomycin
    DOC for Francisella Streptomycin
    DOC for Enterococcus Gentamicin (combo)
    First line for Helicobacter pylori Tetracycline
    First line for Vibrio spp. Doxycyclin
    First lines for Brucella Doxycyclin + Gentamicin
    First line for Chlamydia Doxycyclin
    First line for Nocardia Minocyclin
    First line for Viridans streptococci (serious infections) Gentamicin
    First line for Strep agalactiae (serious infections) Gentamicin
    First line for Listeria meningitis Gentamicin
    First line for Campylobacter (serious infections) Gentamicin
    What's the drug of choice for chlamydia trachomatis? Azithromycin
    What's the DOC for Nocardia & Pneumocystis pneumonia? Co-trimoxazole.
  3. Neha Gupta

    Neha Gupta Active Member

    ANTI BACTERIAL DRUG OF CHOICE LIST

    01. Enterococcus: Ampicillin + Gentamicin
    02. Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible): Nafcillin
    03. Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-resistant): Vancomycin
    04. Streptococcus pneumonia (penicillin-susceptible): Penicillin G, Amoxicillin
    05. Streptococcus pneumonia (penicillin-resistant): Vancomycin + Ceftriaxone
    06. Neisseria gonorheae: Ceftriaxone (IV), Cefixime (oral)
    07. Treponema pallidum: Penicillin G
    08. M. meningitidis: Penicillin G
    09. Moraxella catarrhalis: Cefuroxime, Fluoroquinolones
    10. Clostridium difficile: Metronidazole
    11. Bacteroides fragilis: Metronidazole
    12. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Macrolide
    13. Chlamydia trachomatis: Azithromycin or other Macrolides
    14. Klebsiella pneumoniae: 3rd generation cephalosporin
    15. Enterobacter: Carbapanem, Cefipime
    16. Escherichia coli: 3rd generation cephalosporin
    17. Campylobacter jejuni: Macrolide
    18. Gardnerella vaginalis: Metronidazole
    19. Proteus mirabilis: Ampicillin
    20. Proteus indole positive: 3rd generation cephalosporin
    21. Salmonella typhi: Ceftriaxone
    22. Shigella: Fluoroquinolone
    23. Serratia: Carbapanem
  4. Neha Gupta

    Neha Gupta Active Member

    SOME IMP DRUG OF CHOICE..
    ====================================

    DOC for Ulcerative colitis-5 aminosalicylic acid

    DOC for Crohnís -

    Magnesium Oxide is the antidote for mineral acid poisoning

    TOC for acute coalescent mastoiditis-Simple mastiodectomy

    TOC of SCC of maxillary antrum-Surgery+Radiotherapy

    DOC for Cholera Chemoprophylaxis-Tetracycline

    DOC for Cholera in adults- Doxycycline

    DOC for Cholera in children-Cotrimoxazole

    DOC for cholera in Pregnant women-Furazolidone.

    DOC of neurosyphilis- crystalline penicillin G

    DOC for CML- imatinib mesylate

    DOC for supraventricular tachycardia- adenosine

    DOC for foetal adrenal suppression-dexamethasone (started as soon as preg is recognised and not later than 9wks gestation)

    DOC for central DI -Desmopressin
    Drug of choice for Bierís block (IVRA) ó Lidocaine, 40ñ50 mL (0.5 mL/kg in children) of a 0.5% solution without epinephrine

    DOC for nocardiosis - sulfamethoxazole

    Doc for ascariasis in pregnant woman-pyrantel pamoate

    Gold std t/t for brucella -strepto +doxo

    drug of choice for visceral larva migrans-Albendazole

    WILSON DISEASE,
    INV OF CHOICEóóñLIVER BIOPSY
    DOCóóó-ZINC

    DOC for akathesia- Beta blockers

    most sensitive inv for Extradrenal phaeochromocytoma?
    DOPAPET :most sensitive inv

    MIBG : most SPECIFIC inv

    Cardiotoxicity caused by radiotherapy and chemotherapy -endomyocardial biopsy

    TOC of anal canal tumours- Chemoradiation
  5. Neha Gupta

    Neha Gupta Active Member

    MOST COMMON CAUSE ASKED IN PREVIOUS EXAMINATIONS
    ==================================================

    MCC of intracranial metastasis-Ca lung

    MCC of hepatic metastasis - Bronchogenic carcinoma

    MCC of hepatic mets from GIT ñ Colonic ca

    MCC of Intrauterine Growth retardation-C/c pyelonephritis?

    MCC of HTN in children-A/c Glomerulonephritis

    MC complication of CSOM-Temporal lobe abscess

    MC ovarian tumour in pregnancy-Teratoma/Dermoid cyst

    MC joint involved in Osteo Arthritis-Knee joint

    MCC of interstitial/atypical pneumonia- Mycoplasma

    MC Glycogen storage disease-Gaucherís disease

    MC porphyria-Porphyria cutanea tarda.

    MC cause of childhood nephrotic syndrom-Minimal change disease

    MC cause of adult nephrotic syndrome- Membranous glomerulonephritis.

    MC cancer-Lung cancer

    MC cancer in females-Breast cancer

    MC cause of maternal deaths-Obstetric hemorrhage(PPH)

    MC cause of Blindness in India-Cataract

    MC site of Gastrinoma- Duodenum.

    MC Paraneoplastic Syndrome-Hypercalcemia

    MC paraneoplastic endocrinopathy-Cushings syndrome

    mc presentation of meckelís diverticulumóñbleeding

    mc s/e of radiation on heart óó pericardial effusion

    m.c. cause of cushingís disease- pituitary microadenoma

    mcc of primary hyperaldosteronism- b/l cortical hyperplasia

    mc aldosterone producing adrenal tumour- u/l adrenal adenoma

    mcc of post trauma vegetative state- diffuse axonal injury

    mc asso anomaly with coarctation of aorta- bicuspid aortic valve

    mcc of vasculitis in child- henoch-schonlein purpura

    mc feature of aortitis on x-ray- calcified ascending aorta

    MC intra-abdominal malignancy in children ñ Neuroblastoma
    2nd MC intra-abdominal malignancy in children ñ Wilmís tumor
    MC hepatic malignancy in children ñ Hepatoblastoma
    MC soft tissue sarcoma ñ Rhabdomyosarcoma
    MC site for rhabdomyosarcoma ñ Head and neck
    MC Pediatric tumor ñ ALL
    2nd MC Pediatric tumor ñ Brain tumor
    MC brain tumor in children ñ Astrocytoma
    MC brain tumor in infancy ñ Supratentorial
    MC brain tumor between 1-10 yrs of age ñ Infratentorial
    MC brain tumor after 10 yrs of age ñ Supratentorial
    MC embryonal brain tumor ñ Medulloblastoma
    MC renal mass in neonates ñ Multicystic renal dysplasia
    MC malignant tumor of kidney ñ Wilmís tumor

    mc tumours in parts of mediastinum-

    anterior- thymomas
    mid- cyst
    posterior- neurogenic tu

    mc tumour of mediastinum- neurogenic tu
    most malignant masses of mediastinum- lymphomas

    mc site of colonic volvulus- sigmoid

    MC cause of renal artery stenosis

    old age- atherosclerosis
    young(india)- Takayasu arteritis
    young( western world)- fibro muscular dysplasia
    MC of eye in AIDS
    1. Lesion- microvasculopathy of conjunctiva and retina
    2. Infection- chorioretinitis
    3. Neoplasm- kaposi sarcoma
    4. Cause of chorioretinitis- CMV
    5. Finding in HIV retinopathy- cotton wool spots
    6. Rx of CMV retinitis- ganciclovir,foscarnet

    MOST COMMON site in GIT

    small bowel carcinoid-ILEUM

    Ulcerative colitis,hirsprung disease-RECTUM

    Polyps in peutz jegher syndrome,pneumatosis cystoid intestinaleñJEJUNUM

    Amoebic colitis,volvulus-SIGMOID COLON

    Bleeding from angiodysplasia-RIGHT COLON

    Brennerís gland-1ST PART OF DUODENUM

    MC cause of maternal death- obst haemorrhage

    MC of isoniazid resistance- kat G gene mutatio
  6. Neha Gupta

    Neha Gupta Active Member

    Dx : Loss of myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus leading to failure of LES relaxation Achalasia
    Dx : Bird's beak on barium swallow Achalasia
    Dx : Painful mucosal lacerations at GE junction. Mallory-Weiss syndrome (Bleeding due to esophageaal varices is painless)
    Dx : Transmural esophageal rupture due to violent retching. Respi symptoms. Boerhaave syndrome
    Dx : What esophageal pathology is associated with lye ingestion? Esophageal strictures
    Dx : Dysphagia, glossitis, and iron-deficiency anemia. Plummer-Vinson syndrome
    List the risk factors for esophageal cancer? ABCDEF Alcohol/Achalasiaa Barrett's Esophagus Cigarettes Diverticuli Esophageal web/Esophagitis Familial
    Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. Autoantibodies to gluten in wheat and other grains. Celiac sprue
    Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. Infection with Tropheryma whippelii. Whipple's disease
    Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. PAS-positive foamy macrophages in intestinal lamina propria. Non-AIDS patient. Whipple's disease
    Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. Foamy macrophages in lamina propria. AIDS patient. Infection by Mycobacterium vium-intracellulare complex
    Dx : Antiglandin antibodies. Blunting of villi. Lymphocytes in lamina propria. Celiac sprue
    Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. Associated with dermatitis herpetiformis. Celiac sprue
    Dx : Diarrheaa, steatorrhea, weightloss, weakness. Moderately increaase risk of malignancy (most often T-Cell lymphoma) Celiac sprue
    Dx : Congenital megacolon characterized by lack of ganglion cells/enteric nervous plexus in segment on intestinal biopsy. Hirschsprung's disease
    Dx : Early bilious vomiting and proximal stomach distension Duodenal atresia
    Risk of Hirschprung's disease is increased with which genetic abnormality? Down syndrome

    Duodenal atresia is associated with which genetic abnormality? Down syndrome
    Dx : Premature baby. Necrosis of intestinal mucosaa and possible perforation. Necrotizing enterocolitis
    Dx : Acute bowel obstruction, history of recent surgery. Adhesion
    Which part of the GI tract does ischaemic colitis commonly occur? Splenic flexure.
    Dx : Dilation of vessels in GIT, leading to bleeding. Most often found in cecum and ascending colon. Angiodysplasia
    Dx : Hamartomatous polyps of colon and small intestine. Hyperpigmented mouth, lips, hands, genitalia. Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
    Dx : Tumor of endrocrine cells. Commonly located in small intestine. Carcinoid syndrome
    Dx : Dense core bodies seen on EM. Wheezing, right sided heart murmurs, diarrhea, flushing. Carcinoid syndrome.
    Dx : AST more than ALT Alcoholic hepatitis
    Dx : ALT more than AST Viral hepatitis
    Ceruloplasmin will decrease in which disease? Wilson's disease
    Dx : Child. Hepatomegaly and encephalopathy. Fatty liver, hypoglycemia, coma. Associated with viral infection that has been treated with salicylates. Reye's syndrome
    Dx : Young women. Liver inflammation symptoms. Positive ANA and anti-smooth muscle antibodies. Autoimmune hepatitis
    Dx : Neonate. Liver inflammation symptoms. Biopsy shows multinucleated giant cells. Neonatal hepatitis
    Dx : Describe the ALT / AST levels in fulminant hepatic failure. Decreased (cuz liver parenchyma destroyed)
    Dx : Micronodular, ireegularly shrunken liver with "hobnail" appearance. Sclerosis around the central vein. Alcoholic cirrhosis
    In relation to the liver, increased AFP is an indication of what? Hepatocellular carcinoma
    Dx : Occlusion of IVC or hepaticc veins with centrilobular congestion and necrosis, leading to congestive liver disease. Budd Chiari syndrome
    Dx : Liver congestion signs, but absence of jugular venous distention. Budd Chiari syndrome
    Dx : Neonatal hepatitis, PAS positive globules in liver. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
    Dx : Concentric "onion skin" bile duct fibrosis Primary sclerosing cholangitis
    Dx : Jaundice, fever, right upper quadrant pain Cholelithiasis/cholangitis (charcot's triad of cholangitis)
    Dx : Air can be seen in biliary tree on imaging. Gallstone obstructs ileocecal
    valve. (there is a fistula between gallbladder and small intestine)
    Dx : Epigastric abdominal pain radiating to back, anorexia, nausea. Elevated amylase and lipase. Acute pancreatitis
  7. Neha Gupta

    Neha Gupta Active Member

    CARDIOLOGY: HIGH YIELD - INTERNAL MEDICINE
    1. Stable angina — chest discomfort, can be felt in back/arms/jaw/abdm, occurs with stress/emotion, relief with rest, Dx by stress test. Tx with nitrates, bb, Cabs, heparin, aspirin, if 3 vessels or L main do CABG
    2. Unstable angina — unpredictable at rest or abruptly worsening pattern of angina, prolonged duration (>20), Dx by ECG (st depression/t inversion) or cath shows CAD, but negative cardiac markers, Tx with nitrates, cabs, bb, heparin
    3. Variant/Prinzmetal Angina — chest pain at rest, ST elevation (note the 3 causes of ST elevation are MI (inferior (LDA) is II, III AVF; lateral (circumflex a)is I, AVL, V5, V6; anterior is V1-V4), Pericarditis (diffuse, meaning every lead has it), and Variant Angina) with negative markers. Treat with Ca-channel blockers (Cabs) or nitrates.
    4. Acute MI — chest discomfort, crushing pain without warning (females and diabetics get atypical chest pain, which is abdm pain, fatigue, neck pain or weakness), prolonged duration (hours), ECG may be abnormal (st elevation or depression), increased markers, Tx with MONA, ACEI, heparin, bb, tPAs if <12 hrs after onset of pain, complications include MR, VSD, cardiac rupture and ventricular aneurysm.
    5. CAD risk factors: smoking, HTN, family h/o premature CAD (<55 in male, <65 in female), male >45, female >55, HDL <40, LDL >100. (If HDL >60, subtract one). >2 risk factors: diet if >160, drugs if >190; 2 or more risk factors: diet if >130, drugs if >160, pt has CHD: diet if >100, drugs if >130.
    6. Causes of high output heart failure — severe anemia, thyrotoxicosis, acute beriberi, pagets dz, large AV fistula
    7. Acute Pulmonary edema — tx — 1st upright position and O2, 2nd loops, nitrates, morphine, and 3rd intubate if severe.
    8. HOCM — tx — 1st avoid dehydration, 2nd strenuous activity prohibited, 3rd BB, 4th Cabs, 5th surgical myectomy. Best dx is history (screen family) and physical, then Echo.
    9. Restrictive CM — JVD, edema and ascites, Dx by echo, tx 1st diuretics/ decrease salt
    10. Myocarditis — history or URI (coxsackie) then fever, dyspnea, CP, edema, tachy
    11. Acute Pericarditis — positional CP, Tx with NSAIDS
    12. Pericardial effusion — pericardial friction rub, Tx with pericardiocentesis
    13. Tamponade — becks triad (JVD, muffled heart sounds, pulsus paradoxicus with hypotension), Tx with pericardiocentesis
    14. Constrictive pericarditis — pericardial knock, kussmaul breathing, CXR shows pericardial calcification, Tx with diuretics
    15. Acute RF — PECCS (polyarthrtitis, erythema marginatum, carditis, chorea, subQ nodules) in kids 5-15yo due to group A strep. Tx is Abx, bed rest, salicylates, sedatives for chorea, steroids for carditis.
    16. Mitral stenosis — most associated with RHD, LA enlargement À hoarseness, dysphagia, and A.fib, diastolic rumble at LV apex, Tx with diuretics, coumadin for a.fib, endocarditis prophylaxis, balloon vulvoplasty
    17. Mitral regurge — associated with marfans, RHD, myxomatous change, high-pitched holosystolic murmur at left sternal border, Tx with diuretics, dilators, endocarditis prophylaxis, mitral valve respacement/repair
    18. Aortic regurge — congenital, marfans, trauma, aortitis, high-pitched decrescendo diastolic murmur at left sternal border anDisorderr apex and wide pressure, Tx with valve diuretics, dilators, endocarditis prophylaxis, valve replacement (last)
    19. Aortic stenosis — calcific in elderly, bucuspid in congenital, angina, dyspnea, syncope, mid-late systolic murmur at base radiating to carotids, Tx with replacement (1st step)
    20. Endocarditis — if dental procedure give amoxicillin (clindamycin if allergic), if GI/GU procedure give amoxicillin with gentamycin (vanco with gentamycin in allergic)
    21. VSD — membranous septum, harsh systolic murmur at L sternal border, spontaneous closure in 30-50%, tx — for small vsd observe, for large vsd and significant shunt, surgical repair and endocarditis prophylaxis.
    22. ASD — wide, fixed splitting S2, tx — if small observe, if large surgery
    23. PDA — machinery murmur, wide systemic pulse pressure, Tx with indomethacin then surgery
    24. Aortic Coarctation — UE HTN with LE hypotension, rib notching, LE claudication, HA, dx with MRA or contrast aortography, tx is surgery (best at 4-8yo).
    25. Tetralogy of Fallot — PROVe (Pulm HTN, RVH, Overriding aorta, VSD), kid squats to increase systemic resistance, thus decreased R to L shunt, cyanosis in kid >1yo, CXR with boot shaped heart, confirm dx with cath, tx is surgery, endo prophylaxis
    26. Transposition of great vessels — MCC of cyanosis in 24hrs of birth, Tx with surgery
    27. Initial Txs: CHF À thiaz, bb, acei, arb, aldo ant; Post-MI À bb, acei, aldo ant; DM À acei, bb, thiaz, arb; recurrent strokes À thiaz, acei
    28. Hyperaldosteronism — hypokalemic met alkalosis, PRA ratio, captopril-suppression test, high aldo level, 24hr urinary aldo, salt loading test
    29. Pheochromocytoma — 24hr urine collection for VMA, MRI to visualize adrenal tumors, MIBG if chemistries positive by CT/MRI are negative.
    30. Renal artery stenosis — renal U/S with Doppler, captopril scanning, CT/MRA, high renin, ACEI contraindicated if B/L
    31. Urgent v Emergent HTN — Urgent is just one high reading (give nitroprusside or lobetolol, wait til BP goes down and d/c home). Emergent is when there are signs of end-organ damage (must admit and do workup).
    32. PAD — claudication, rest pain, ulceration at medial ankle, Dx by ankle-brachial index before/after exercise, angiography, MCC is atherosclerosis, Tx with meds (pentoxyfylline, cilastazol, cabs), angioplasty/stenting, avoid constricting drugs (bb)
    33. Temporal Arteritis - >55yo pt with HA, scalp tenderness, visual s/s, next step is low-dose steroids (before temporal a biopsy or getting ESR).
    34. Polyerteritis — HTN, abdominal pain, numbness in legs, skin findings, cns s/s, Dx by biopsy, tx with steroids.
    35. AV Fistula — thrill/bruit over fistula (buzzing sound), Dx by angiography, Tx with surgical excision, if congenital do conservative management instead.
    36. Varicose veins — pain, pigmentation, superficial ulcer, Tx with elastic stockings
    37. Superficial thrombophlebitis — pain, erythema, embolism is rare, Tx with warm compression, limb elevation and NSAIDS.
    38. Deep vein thrombophlebitis — pain, swelling, fever, + Homans sign, PE is risk, so must do plethysmography or Doppler, Tx with heparin/warfarin, filter if recurrent.
    39. Dissecting aortic aneurysm — sharp CP radiating to back, Dx by CT, TEE or MRI, tx — 1st decrease BP (nitroprusside), 2nd - If ascending aorta (up to aortic arch) do surgery, if descending aorta use meds
    40. Abdominal aortic aneurysm — bruit, dx with U/S, see abdominal notes
    41. Aneurysm of thoracic aorta (nondissecting) — may compress adjacent structures causing CP, dysphagia, hoarseness, Dx by aortography, Atherosclerosis is MCC, also due to cystic medial necrosis. Tx with surgical graft replacement.
    MI Day 1 : 4 Hrs+: Coagulative Necrosis, contraction bands. Dark mottling. Tetrazolium Stain pale.
    MI Day 2-4 : Coagulative necrosis. Inflammation: neutrophils & dilated vessels(hyperemic). ARRHYTHMIA RISK
    MI Day 5-10 : Macrophage-mediated tissue removal. Yellow-brown. Soft. RUPTURE RISK
    MI Week 7 : Fibrovascular tissue. VENTRICULAR ANEURYSM RISK
    MI Protein Markers : Troponin (4 hrs-1 week)> CK-MB (Cardiac & Skeletal muscle, rises later) > AST (Cardiac, skeletal muscle & liver)
    MI Complications : Arrythmia (early), LV Failure->PE, Cardiogenic shock, Wall/papillary rupture, Aneurysm (low CO, arrythmia, embolus), Fibrinous pericarditis, Dressler's Syndrome (AI)
    in cardiology MI,CHDs,Arrythmias are most commonlyasked.......
  8. Neha Gupta

    Neha Gupta Active Member

    DRUGS AND SIDE EFFECTS

    Agranulocytosis
    • Clozapine
    Aplastic Anemia
    • Chloramphenicol • NSAIDs • Benzene
    Atropine-like Side Effects
    • Tricyclics
    Cardiotoxicity
    • Doxorubicin • Daunorubicin
    Cartilage Damage in children
    • fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin & Norfloxacin)
    Cinchonism
    • Quinidine
    Coronary Steal Phenomenon
    • Dipyridamole
    Corneal micro deposits
    • Amiodarone
    Cough
    • ACE Inhibitors
    Diabetes Insipidus
    •Lithium
    Disulfiram-like effect
    • Metronidazole • Sulfonylureas (1st generation)
    Extrapyramidal Side Effects
    • Antipsychotics (Thioridazine, Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine)
    Fanconi’s Syndrome
    • Tetracycline
    Fatal Hepatotoxicity (necrosis)
    • Valproic Acid • Halothane • Acetaminophen
    Gingival Hyperplasia
    • Phenytoin
    Gray Baby Syndrome
    • Chloramphenicol
    Gynecomastia
    • Cimetidine • Azoles • Spironolactone • Digitalis • Estrogen & testosterone • INH & ethionamide • Clomiphine • Phenytoin • Reserpine & Methyldopa
    Hand Foot Syndrome
    • 5-Flurouracil (5-FU)
    Hemolytic Anemia in G6PD-deficiency
    • Sulfonamides • Isoniazid • Aspirin • Ibuprofen • Primaquine
    Hemorrhagic Cystitis
    • Cyclophosphamide • Ifosamide (Treat by Mesna & Acetylcysteine Bladder Wash)
    Hepatitis
    • Isoniazid
    Hot Flashes, Flushing
    • niacin • Tamoxifen • Ca++ Channel Blockers
    Hypertension: Postural
    • Prazocin
    Hypertension: Rebound
    • Clonidine withdrawal
    Increased intra cranial tension (¬ ICT)
    • Amiodarone • Hypervitaminosis A • OCP’s • Tetracycline • Quinolones
    Induce CP450
    • Barbiturates • Phenytoin • Carbamazepine • Rifampin
    Inhibit CP450
    •Cimetidine • Erythromycin • Ketoconazole • Isoniazid (INH) [remember CEKI]
    Interstitial Nephritis
    • Methicillin • NSAIDs (except Aspirin) • Furosemide • Sulfonamides
    Milk Alkali Syndrome
    • Calcium Carbonate (CaCo3)
    Monday Disease
    • Nitroglycerin Industrial exposure ® tolerance during week ® loss of tolerance during weekend ® headache, tach, dizziness upon re-exposure
    Nephrotoxicity
    • Cephaloridine • Gentamycin • Amphotericin
    Orange Body Fluids
    • Rifampin
    Osteoporosis
    • Heparin • Corticosteroids
    Pancreatitis
    • L-Asparginase • Glucocorticoids
    Photosensitivity
    • Lomefloxacin • Pefloxacin
    Positive Coombs’ Test
    • Methyldopa
    Pulmonary Fibrosis
    • Bleomycin • Amiodarone
    Rabbit Syndrome (Perioral tremors)
    • Phenothiazines
    Red Man Syndrome
    • Vancomycin (rapid IV)
    Severe HTN with Tyramine
    • MAOIs
    SLE- Drug Induced[Anti Histone Antibody Characteristic of this]
    • Chloropromazine • Hydralazine • Isoniazid • Methyldopa • Procainamide • Quinidine [ remember CHIMP -Q]
    Tardive Dyskinesia
    • Antipsychotics (Thioridazine, Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine)
    Tinnitus
    • Aspirin • Quinidine
    Torsades de Pontis
    • Terfanadin
  9. Neha Gupta

    Neha Gupta Active Member

    IMPORTANY BODIES

    Starry sky pattern? Burkitt's lymphoma
    most commonly recieves mets? Adrenal gland (rich blood supply)
    most common testicular tumor in children? in Men? Yolk sac tumor, Seminoma
    Auer's rods? Acute myelocytic leukemia (AML)-M3
    Aschoff's bodies? Rheumatic fever
    Birbeck granules? Histiocytosis X
    Neurofibrillary tangles? Alzheimer's disease
    Bence-Jones proteinuria? Multiple myeloma
    Cal-Exner bodies? Granulosa/thecal cell tumor of the ovary
    Cowdry type A bodies? Herpes virus
    Codman's triangle on an x-ray? Osteosarcoma
    Councilman bodies? Toxic or viral hepatitis
    Calf pseudohypertrophy? Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
    Reed-Sternberg cells? Hodgkin's lymphoma
    Heinz bodies? G-6-PD deficiency
    Homer-Wright rosettes? Neuroblastoma
    Curschmann's spirals? Bronchial asthma (whorled mucous plugs)
    Kayser-Fleischer rings? Wilson's disease
    Lewy bodies? Parkinson's disease]
    Orphan Annie cells? Papillary carcinoma of the ovary
    Russell bodies? Multiple myeloma
    Reinke's crystals? Leydig cell tumor
    Blue sclera? Osteogenesis imperfecta
    Soap-bubble appearance on an x-ray? Giant cell tumor of the bone
    Pseudorosettes? Ewing's sarcoma
    Lucid interval? Epidural hematoma
    Bloody tap on lumbar puncture? Subarachnoid hemorrhage
    Pseudopalisades? Glioblastoma multiforme
    Charcot-Leyden crystals? Bronchial asthma (eosinophil membranes)
    Cafe au fait spot on the skin? Neurofibromatosis
    Streaky ovaries? Turner's syndrome
    Keratin pearls? Squamous cell carcinoma
    Signet ring cells? Gastric carcinoma
    Mallory's bodies? Chronic alcoholism
    Blue-domed cysts? Fibrocystic change of the breast
    Schiller-Duval bodies? Yolk sac tumor
    Senile plaques? Alzheimer's disease
    WBCs in the urine? Acute cystitis
    RBCs in the urine? Bladder carcinoma
    RBC casts in the urine? Acute glomerulonephritis
    WBC casts in the urine? Acute pyelonephritis
    Renal epithelial casts in the urine? Acute toxic or viral nephrosis
    Waxy casts? Chronic end-stage renal disease
    Cause of chronic metal poisoning? Lead
    Cause of congenital cyanotic heart disease? Tetralogy of Fallot
    Congenital cardiac anomaly? Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
    Cardiac tumor? Left atrial myxoma
    Vasculitis? Temporal arteritis
    Primary tumor of the liver? Hemangioma (benign)
    Primary malignant tumor of the lungs? Adenocarcinoma (30% to 35%)
    most Cause of nephrotic syndrome? Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
    most cause of nephrotic syndrome in children? Lipoid nephrosis
    most common: Organism that causes pyelonephritis? Escherichia coli
    most common: Renal cell cancer type? Clear cell
    most common: Tumor of the liver? Metastatic cancer (GI, breast, lungs)
    most common: Malignant tumor of the esophagus? Squamous cell carcinoma
    most common: Tumor arising within the bone? Multiple myeloma
    most common: Primary malignant tumor of the female genital tract in the world? Cervical neoplasia
    most common: Primary malignant tumor of the female genital tract in the US? Adenocarcinoma of the cervix
    most common: Tumor of the female genitourinary tract? Leiomyoma
    most common: Benign tumor of the ovary? Serocystadenoma
    most common: Benign tumor of the breast? Fibroadenoma
    most common: Benign lesion that affects the breast? Fibrocystic change of the breast
    most common: Malignant tumor of the breast? Invasive ductal carcinoma
    most common: Tumor in men between the ages of 15 and 35? Testicular tumors
    most common: Germ cell tumor in men? Seminoma
    most common: Testicular tumor in infants and children? Yolk sac tumor
    most common: Malignant germ cell tumor in women? Choriocarcinoma
    most common: Solid tumor in the body? Nephroblastoma
    most common: Acquired GI emergency of infancy? Necrotizing enterocolitis of infancy
    most common: Primary malignant tumor of the ovary? Serocystadenocarcinoma
    most common: Cardiac tumor of infancy? Rhabdomyoma
    most common: Acute metal poisoning? Arsenic
    most common: Proliferative abnormality of an internal organ? Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
    most common: Malignant tumor in the bone of teenagers? Osteosarcoma
    most common: Site of a cerebral infarct? Middle cerebral artery
  10. Neha Gupta

    Neha Gupta Active Member

    Which RNA is the most abundant? rRNA - rampant
    Which RNA is the longest? mRNA - massive
    Which RNA is the smallest? tRNA - tiny
    Which RNA polymerase encodes rRNA? RNA polymerase I (site of action of Rifampin)
    Which RNA polymerase encodes mRNA? RNA polymerase II (site of α-amantin
    Which RNA polymerase encodes tRNA? RNA polymerase III
    IMP GENETIC DISEASES
    Which diseases are caused by trinucleotide repeats? Huntington's, myotonic dystophy, Fragile X, and Friedreich's ataxia
    Which trisomy has mental retardation, flat face, epicanthal folds, a simian crease, doudenal atresia, and and ASD? Down's Syndrome (21)
    Which trisomy has rocker-bottom feet, micrognathia, low set ears, clenched hands, and congenital heart disease? Edward's Syndrome (18)
    Which trisomy has rocker-bottom feet, microphthalmia, microcephaly, cleft lip/palate, holoprosencephaly, and polydactyly? Patau Syndrome (13)
    Which disorder is characterized by elfin faces, mental retardation, hypercalcemia, extreme friendliness to strangers? William's Syndrome (think of Will ferrel in ELF)
    Cri-du-chat is caused by microdeletion of what chromosome? Chromosome 5p
    What is the cause of DiGeorge Syndrome (Velocardiofacial syndrome)? 22q11 deletion
    What disease is caused by lack of α-galactosidase A? Fabry's Disease
    What disease is caused by lack of β-glucocerebrosidase? Gaucher's Disease
    What disease is caused by lack of Sphingomyelinase? Niemann-Pick Disease
    What disease is caused by lack of Hexosaminidase A? Tay-Sachs
    What disease is caused by lack of Galactocerebrosidase? Krabbe's Disease
    What disease is caused by lack of arylsulfatase A? Metachromatic leukodystophy
    What disease is caused by lack of α-L-iduronidase? Hurler's Syndrome
    What disease is caused by lack of Iduronate sulfatase? Hunter's Syndrome
    Which Lysosomal storage diseases are passed in an X-Linked recessive fashion? (rest are recessive) Hunter's and Fabry's Disease
    Which Lysosomal storage disease has a cherry red spot? Niemann-Pick and Tay-Sachs Disease
    Which LSD has Crumpled tissue paper cytoplasm? Gaucher's Disease
    Which LSD has Onion skin lysosomes? Tay-Sachs
    Which LSD has Foam cells? Niemann-Pick Disease
    What is the difference between Hunter's and Hurler's Hurler's has corneal clouding, Hunter's does nt
    Which disease is cause by lack of Glucose-6-phosphatase? Von Gierkes
    Which disease is caused by lack of α-1,4-glucosidase (acid maltase)? Pompe's Disease
    Which disease is caused by lack of α-1,6-glucosidase (debranching enzyme)? Cori's Disease
    Which disease is caused by lack of glycogen phosphorylase? McArdle's Disease
    Which diseases causes severe fasting hypoglycemia, glycogen buildup in liver, increase blood lactate, and hepatomegaly? Von Gierkes
    Which disease causes Cardiomegaly and early death? Pompe's Disease (Pompe's trashes the pump)
    Which disease causes fasting hypoglycemia, some glycogen buildup, and increased blood lactate, and hepatomegaly? Cori's Disease (hard to differentiate between Von Gierkes
  11. Neha Gupta

    Neha Gupta Active Member

    AUTOANTIBODIES IMP FOR FMGE

    Antigliadin -- Celiac disease
    ANtimitochondrial -- Primary biliary cirrhosis
    Antiplatelet -- Idiopathic immune thrombocytic purpura
    Anti-basement membrane -- Goodpasture’s syndrome
    Anti SS-A (anti-Ro) & Anti SS-B (anti-La) -- Sjogren’s syndrome
    Anti ds DNA & Anti Sm (ANAs) -- SLE
    Antihistone -- Drug induced lupus
    Anti-topoisomerase I (anti-Scl 70) -- Diffuse Scleroderma
    Anticentromere -- CREST Syndrome
    Anti-IgG (Rheumatoid factor) -- Rheumatoid arthritis
    Antithyroglobulin & Antithyroid peroxidase (antimicrosomal) -- Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
    Anti-desmoglein 3 -- Pemphigus vulgaris
    c-ANCA -- Wegener granulomatosis
    p-ANCA -- Microscopic polyangitis & Churg-Strauss syndrome
    Antiphospholipid -- Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (Ex:SLE)
    Anti-perietalcell -- Pernicious anemia
  12. Neha Gupta

    Neha Gupta Active Member

    MURMURS
    Carey Coombs murmur- Mid diastolic murmur, in rheumatic fever
    Austin Flint murmur- mid- late diastolic murmur,in Aortic Regurgitation.
    Graham- Steel murmur- high pitched, diastolic, in pulmonary regurgitation.
    Rytands murmur - mid diastolic atypical murmur, in Complete heart block.
    Docks murmur-diastolic murmur, Left Anterior Descending(LAD) artery stenosis.
    Mill wheel murmur- due to air in RV cavity following cardiac catheterization.
    Stills murmur- inferior aspect of lower left sternal border, systolic ejection sound, vibratory/musical quality,in subaortic stenosis, small VSD
  13. Neha Gupta

    Neha Gupta Active Member

    MOST COMMON CAUSE ASKED IN PREVIOUS EXAMINATIONS
    ==================================================

    MCC of intracranial metastasis-Ca lung

    MCC of hepatic metastasis - Bronchogenic carcinoma

    MCC of hepatic mets from GIT ñ Colonic ca

    MCC of Intrauterine Growth retardation-C/c pyelonephritis?

    MCC of HTN in children-A/c Glomerulonephritis

    MC complication of CSOM-Temporal lobe abscess

    MC ovarian tumour in pregnancy-Teratoma/Dermoid cyst

    MC joint involved in Osteo Arthritis-Knee joint

    MCC of interstitial/atypical pneumonia- Mycoplasma

    MC Glycogen storage disease-Gaucherís disease

    MC porphyria-Porphyria cutanea tarda.

    MC cause of childhood nephrotic syndrom-Minimal change disease

    MC cause of adult nephrotic syndrome- Membranous glomerulonephritis.

    MC cancer-Lung cancer

    MC cancer in females-Breast cancer

    MC cause of maternal deaths-Obstetric hemorrhage(PPH)

    MC cause of Blindness in India-Cataract

    MC site of Gastrinoma- Duodenum.

    MC Paraneoplastic Syndrome-Hypercalcemia

    MC paraneoplastic endocrinopathy-Cushings syndrome

    mc presentation of meckelís diverticulumóñbleeding

    mc s/e of radiation on heart óó pericardial effusion

    m.c. cause of cushingís disease- pituitary microadenoma

    mcc of primary hyperaldosteronism- b/l cortical hyperplasia

    mc aldosterone producing adrenal tumour- u/l adrenal adenoma

    mcc of post trauma vegetative state- diffuse axonal injury

    mc asso anomaly with coarctation of aorta- bicuspid aortic valve

    mcc of vasculitis in child- henoch-schonlein purpura

    mc feature of aortitis on x-ray- calcified ascending aorta

    MC intra-abdominal malignancy in children ñ Neuroblastoma
    2nd MC intra-abdominal malignancy in children ñ Wilmís tumor
    MC hepatic malignancy in children ñ Hepatoblastoma
    MC soft tissue sarcoma ñ Rhabdomyosarcoma
    MC site for rhabdomyosarcoma ñ Head and neck
    MC Pediatric tumor ñ ALL
    2nd MC Pediatric tumor ñ Brain tumor
    MC brain tumor in children ñ Astrocytoma
    MC brain tumor in infancy ñ Supratentorial
    MC brain tumor between 1-10 yrs of age ñ Infratentorial
    MC brain tumor after 10 yrs of age ñ Supratentorial
    MC embryonal brain tumor ñ Medulloblastoma
    MC renal mass in neonates ñ Multicystic renal dysplasia
    MC malignant tumor of kidney ñ Wilmís tumor

    mc tumours in parts of mediastinum-

    anterior- thymomas
    mid- cyst
    posterior- neurogenic tu

    mc tumour of mediastinum- neurogenic tu
    most malignant masses of mediastinum- lymphomas

    mc site of colonic volvulus- sigmoid

    MC cause of renal artery stenosis

    old age- atherosclerosis
    young(india)- Takayasu arteritis
    young( western world)- fibro muscular dysplasia
    MC of eye in AIDS
    1. Lesion- microvasculopathy of conjunctiva and retina
    2. Infection- chorioretinitis
    3. Neoplasm- kaposi sarcoma
    4. Cause of chorioretinitis- CMV
    5. Finding in HIV retinopathy- cotton wool spots
    6. Rx of CMV retinitis- ganciclovir,foscarnet

    MOST COMMON site in GIT

    small bowel carcinoid-ILEUM

    Ulcerative colitis,hirsprung disease-RECTUM

    Polyps in peutz jegher syndrome,pneumatosis cystoid intestinaleñJEJUNUM

    Amoebic colitis,volvulus-SIGMOID COLON

    Bleeding from angiodysplasia-RIGHT COLON

    Brennerís gland-1ST PART OF DUODENUM

    MC cause of maternal death- obst haemorrhage

    MC of isoniazid resistance- kat G gene mutatio
  14. Neha Gupta

    Neha Gupta Active Member

    AUTOANTIBODIES IMP FOR FMGE

    Antigliadin -- Celiac disease
    ANtimitochondrial -- Primary biliary cirrhosis
    Antiplatelet -- Idiopathic immune thrombocytic purpura
    Anti-basement membrane -- Goodpastureís syndrome
    Anti SS-A (anti-Ro) & Anti SS-B (anti-La) -- Sjogrenís syndrome
    Anti ds DNA & Anti Sm (ANAs) -- SLE
    Antihistone -- Drug induced lupus
    Anti-topoisomerase I (anti-Scl 70) -- Diffuse Scleroderma
    Anticentromere -- CREST Syndrome
    Anti-IgG (Rheumatoid factor) -- Rheumatoid arthritis
    Antithyroglobulin & Antithyroid peroxidase (antimicrosomal) -- Hashimotoís thyroiditis
    Anti-desmoglein 3 -- Pemphigus vulgaris
    c-ANCA -- Wegener granulomatosis
    p-ANCA -- Microscopic polyangitis & Churg-Strauss syndrome
    Antiphospholipid -- Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (Ex:SLE)
    Anti-perietalcell -- Pernicious anemia
  15. Neha Gupta

    Neha Gupta Active Member

    For MRSA Infection-Vancomycin
    For Malaria in Pregnancy-Chloroquine
    For Whooping Cough or Perteusis- Erythromycin
    For Kawasaki disease-IV Ig
    For Warferin Overdose-Vit-K
    For Heparin Overdose-Protamine
    For hairy Cell Leukemia-Cladirabine
    For Multiple Myeloma- Melphalan
    For CML-Imatinib
    For Wegner's granulomatosis-Cyclophosphamide
    For HOCM- Propranolol
    For Delirium Tremens-Diazepam
    For Drug Induced Parkinsonism-Benzhexol
    For Diacumarol Poisoning-Vit-K
    For Type-1 Lepra Reaction-Steroids
    For Type- 2 Lepra Reaction-Thalidomide
    For Allergic Contect Dermatitis-Steroids
    For PSVT- 1st-Adenosine, 2nd-Verapamil, 3rd-Digoxin
    For Z-E Syndrome- Proton Pump Inhibitor
    For Chancroid-Cotrimoxazole
    For Dermatitis Herpetiformis-Dapsone
    For Spastic Type of Cerebral Palsy-Diazepam
    For Herpis Simplex Keratitis-Trifluridine
    For Herpes Simplex Orolabialis-Pancyclovir
    For Neonatal Herpes Simplex-Acyclovir
    For Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia- CotrimoxazoleFor Nodulo Cystic Acne-Retinoic acid
    For Trigeminal Neuralgia-Carbamezapine
    For Actinomycosis-Penicillin
    For Plague- Streptomycin
    For Opioid Withdrawal- Methadone 2nd-Clonidine
    For Alcohol Withdrawal- Chlordiazepoxide 2nd-Diazepam
    For Post Herpetic Neuralgia- Fluphenazine
    For WEST Syndrome-ACTH
    For Diabetic Diarrhoea- Clonidine
    For Lithium Induced Neuropathy-Amiloride
  16. Neha Gupta

    Neha Gupta Active Member

    LIST OF SYNDROMES
    SYNDROMES



    ACUTE RADIATION SYNDROME: Radiation exposure.
    12 hours post-exposure: Vomiting
    24 hours post-exposure: Prostration (extreme exhaustion), fever, diarrhea
    Later: Petechial hemorrhage, hypotension, tachycardia, profuse bloody diarrhea, maybe death.

    CHINESE RESTAURANT SYNDROME: MSG reaction ------> Chest Pain, burning sensation over parts of body.

    BROWN-SEQUARD SYNDROME: Damage (injury) to half of spinal cord ------> symptoms:
    Loss of pain and temperature sensation on contralateral side of body.
    Loss of proprioception and discriminatory touch on ipsilateral side of body.




    EISENMENGER'S SYNDROME: Ventricular-Septal Defect ------> Pulmonary hypertension and cyanosis.

    FLOPPY-VALVE SYNDROME: Mitral Incompetence due to myxomatous degeneration of the leaflets.



    BEHCET'S SYNDROME: Vasculitis ------> secondary symptoms:
    Oral and genital ulcers
    Uveitis
    Optic atrophy

    SHOULDER-HAND SYNDROME: Pain in shoulder and swelling in hand, sometimes occurring after Myocardial Infarction.

    SICK SINUS SYNDROME: Chaotic atrial activity; continual changes in P-Waves. Bradycardia, alternating with recurrent ectopic beats and runs of tachycardia.

    SUPERIOR VENA CAVA SYNDROME: Caused by a tumor. Obstruction of SVC ------>
    Edema
    Engorgement of the vessels of face, neck, and arms.
    Nonproductive cough
    Dyspnea

    TAKAYASU'S SYNDROME: Arteritis of the Aortic Arch, resulting in no pulse. Seen in young women.

    WOLF-PARKINSON WHITE SYNDROME: ECG pattern of Paroxysmal Tachycardia.
    Short PR interval
    Delta wave = early QRS complex.




    ASHERMAN'S SYNDROME: Adhesions within the endometrial cavity, causing amenorrhea and infertility.
    Adhesions probably were caused by surgery.



    CARCINOID SYNDROME: Carcinoid tumor producing Bradykinin + Serotonin ------> secondary symptoms:
    Cyanotic flushing
    Diarrhea
    Bronchial spasm
    Edema, ascites.



    GARDNER'S SYNDROME: Multiple inherited tumors, hereditary dominant trait.
    Skull osteomas, Fibromas, Epidermoid cysts
    Colonic polyposis (APC gene) ------> predisposition to colonic adenocarcinoma.

    LAMBERT-EATON SYNDROME: Progressive proximal muscle weakness secondary to a carcinoma.
    MEIGS' SYNDROME: Fibroma of ovary with ascites and hydrothorax

    PANCOAST SYNDROME: Tumor near pulmonary apex ------>
    Neuritic pain of chest and arm
    Muscle atrophy of the arm
    Horner's Syndrome (impaired cervical sympathetics)

    PEUTZ-JEGHERS SYNDROME: Polyposis (hamartomas) of small intestine
    Also see melanin pigmentation of buccal mucosa and skin around mouth and lips



    DANDY-WALKER SYNDROME: Obstruction of Foramina of Magendie and Luschka in infants ------> Hydrocephalus.

    DIGEORGE SYNDROME: Congenital absence of 3rd and 4th Branchial Arches (Thymus and Parathyroid Glands) ------> secondary symptoms:
    No cell-mediated immunity ------> Frequent viral and fungal infections
    Characteristic facial deformities

    DOWN SYNDROME: Trisomy 21. Mental retardation, characteristic facial features, Simeon crease in hand.
    FANCONI'S SYNDROME Type I: Bone-marrow hypoplasia ------> refractory anemia, pancytopenia.


    FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME: Fetal malformations, growth deficiencies, craniofacial anomalies, limb defects.

    GOODPASTURE'S SYNDROME: Autoantibodies against basement membranes ------> Glomerulonephritis (kidney) and hemoptysis (lungs).
    Often, death by renal failure

    KLINEFELTER'S SYNDROME: Trisomy XXY ------> testicular atrophy, increase in gonadotropins in urine.

    LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME: Deficiency of HGPRT (Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phospho-ribosyltransferase ------>
    Hyperuricemia, uric acid kidney stones
    Choreoathetosis
    Mental retardation, autism, spastic cerebral palsy
    X-Linked recessive

    MARFAN SYNDROME: Connective Tissue disorder ------>
    Arachnodactyly: Abnormally long digits and extremities
    Subluxation of lens
    Dissecting aortic aneurism

    POSTRUBELLA SYNDROME: Infantile defects resulting from maternal Rubella infection during first trimester.
    Microphthalmos, cataracts
    Deafness
    Mental retardation
    Patent ductus arteriosis, Pulmonary arterial stenosis

    PRADER-WILLI SYNDROME: Short stature, mental retardation, polyphagia with marked obesity, sexual infantilism.

    RENDU-OSLER-WEBER SYNDROME: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.
    SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME: Unexplained death in sleeping infants.

    TURNER'S SYNDROME: XO monosomy.
    Dwarfism
    Webbed neck
    Valgus of elbow.
    Amenorrhea

    WILSON SYNDROME: Congenital defect in Ceruloplasmin, leading to buildup of copper ------> mental retardation, cirrhosis, hepatolenticular degeneration.





    CONN'S SYNDROME: Primary Hyperaldosteronism ------> muscular weakness, hypertension, hypokalemia, alkalosis.

    CUSHING'S SYNDROME: Hypersecretion of cortisol ------> secondary symptoms and characteristics:
    Fatness of face and trunk with wasting of extremities
    Buffalo hump
    Bone decalacification
    Corticoid diabetes
    Hypertension


    SHEEHAN'S SYNDROME: Post-partum pituitary necrosis ------> hypopituitarism.



    KARTAGENER'S SYNDROME: Situs Inversus (lateral transposition of lungs) resulting from chronic sinusitis and bronchiectasis.

    MIDDLE-LOBE SYNDROME: Chronic pneumonitis and atalectasis of middle lobe of right lung.

    CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME: Allergic Granulomatous Angiitis: Asthma, fever, eosinophilia.
    INFECTIOUS


    GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME: Infectious Polyneuritis of unknown cause.
    HUNT'S SYNDROME: Herpe's Zoster infection of Facial Nerve (CN VII) and Geniculate Ganglion ------> facial palsy.
    Zoster of ear

    PARINAUD'S SYNDROME: Preauricular lymph node enlargement on the same side as conjunctivitis.

    REYE'S SYNDROME: Loss of consciousness and seizures in kids, after a viral infection treated by aspirin.

    REITER'S SYNDROME: Symptom cluster. Etiology is thought to be Chlamydial or post-chlamydial.
    Urethritis
    Iridocyclitis (Conjunctivitis)
    Arthritis
    Skin lesions like karatoderma blenorrhagicum
    Also can see fatty liver or liver necrosis.

    SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME: S. Aureus toxic epidermal necrolysis
    .
    STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME: Erythema Multiforme complication.
    Large areas of skin slough, including mouth and anogenital membranes.
    Mucous membranes: stomatitis, urethritis, conjunctivitis.
    Headache, fever, malaise.

    TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME: Caused by superabsorbent tampons. Infection with Staph Aureus and subsequent toxicity of exotoxin TSST ------> systemic anaphylaxis.
    Fever, vomiting, diarrhea
    Red rash followed by desquamation

    WATERHOUSE-FRIEDRICHSON SYNDROME: Meningeococcal Meningitis ------> DIC, hemorrhagic infarct of adrenal glands ------> fulminant adrenal failure.
    Vomiting, diarrhea.
    Shock
    Extensive purpura, cyanosis, circulatory collapse.
    RENAL



    BARTTER'S SYNDROME: Juxtaglomerular Cell Hyperplasia ------> secondary symptoms:
    Hyperaldosteronism, Hypokalemic Alkalosis, elevated renin and angiotensin
    No hypertension.
    Compare to Conn's Syndrome

    FANCONI'S SYNDROME Type II: Renal aminoaciduria, glycosuria, hypophosphaturia, cysteine deposition, rickets.



    CARPAL-TUNNEL SYNDROME: Compression of Median Nerve through the Carpal Tunnel ------> pain and parasthesia over distribution of Median N.


    ACUTE-BRAIN SYNDROME: Delirium, confusion, disorientation, developing suddenly in a person that was previously psychologically normal.


    HORNER'S SYNDROME: Loss or lesion of cervical sympathetic ganglion ------>
    Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
    Enophthalmos (caved in eyes)

    KORSAKOFF SYNDROME: Loss of short-term memory
    in chronic alcoholism, caused by degeneration of mamillary bodies.


    GASTROINTESTINAL

    MALLORY-WEISS SYNDROME: Laceration of lower end of esophagus from vomiting ------> hematemesis. Often seen in alcoholics.

    MALABSORPTION SYNDROME: Impaired absorption of dietary substance ------> diarrhea, weakness, weight loss, or symptoms from specific deficiencies.

    BARRETT SYNDROME: Chronic peptic ulcer of the lower esophagus, resulting in metaplasia of esophageal columnar epithelium ------> squamous epithelium.

    ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME: Gastrin-secreting tumor in pancreas ------> Severe peptic ulcers, gastric hyperacidity.

    PLUMMER-VINSON SYNDROME: Esophageal Webs, leading to dysphagis and atrophy of papillae of tongue.
    Also see hypochromic anemia, splenomegaly.



    BUDD-CHIARI SYNDROME:
    ACUTE: Hepatic Vein Thrombosis ------> Massive ascites and dramatic death.
    CHRONIC: Gradual hepatomegaly, portal hypertension, nausea, vomiting, edema, ulimately death.

    DUBIN-JOHNSON SYNDROME: Defect in excretion of conjugated bilirubin ------> recurrent mild jaundice. Buildup of direct builirubin in blood.

    CHIDIAK-HIGASHI SYNDROME: Abnormalities in leukocytes with large inclusions.




    LOFFLER'S SYNDROME: Eosinophilia with transient infiltrates in lungs.

    PARINAUD'S SYNDROME: Preauricular lymph node enlargement on the same side as conjunctivitis.





    SJOGREN'S SYNDROME: Autoimmune complex
    Keratoconjuctivitis Sicca (dry eyes and mouth)
    Dryness of Mucous membranes
    Telangiectasias in face
    Parotid enlargement
  17. Comparison of hypersensitivity types

    type I: Allergy (immediate)
    Atopy
    Anaphylaxis
    Asthma


    II Cytotoxic, antibody-dependent:
    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
    Thrombocytopenia
    Erythroblastosis fetalis
    Goodpasture's syndrome
    Membranous nephropathy
    Graves' disease
    Myasthenia Gravis

    III Immune complex disease:
    Serum sickness
    Arthus reaction
    Rheumatoid arthritis
    Post streptococcal glomerulonephritis
    lupus Nephritis
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (Hypersensitivity pneumonitis)


    IV Delayed-type hypersensitivity[2] [3](DTH), cell-mediated immune memory response, antibody-independent:

    Contact dermatitis
    Mantoux test
    Chronic transplant rejection
    Multiple sclerosis [4]
    T-cells

    V Autoimmune disease, receptor mediated :
    Graves' disease
    Myasthenia Gravis
  18. WHO criteria for obesity, based on BMI:

    1. Underweight- <18.5
    2. Normal BMI- 18.5 to 25
    3. Pre-obesity- 25 to 30
    4. Obesity I degree- 30 to 35
    5. Obesity II degree- 35 to 40
    5. Obesity III degree- >40
  19. K!ssing disease-glandular fever/inf mononucleosis
    k!ssing ulcer-ant n post duodenal ulcers/vulval ulcer
    k!ssing tonsils-hyprtrophd parenchymtous tonsils(grade 4)
    Kissing virus-EBV
    Kissing peptide-GNRH
    Kissing lesion-donovanosis
    Kissing arthritis-tb knee
    Kissing app on x-ray-bladder papilloma


    Strawberry tongue - Scarlett fever(white followed by red),Kawasaki's disease .
    Strawberry vagina/cervix - Trichomoniasis .
    Strawberry Gingivitis - Pathognomic of wegner's granulomatosis .
    Strawberry Gallbladder - Diffuse cholesterolosis .
    Strawberry Hemangioma/nevus -Birth marks .
    Strawberry picker's Palsy -peroneal nerve compression .
    strawberry skull-edwards dz
  20. * MEN 1 (Wermer Syndrome) – Parathyroid Tumor (Hypercalcemia), Pancreatic Tumor(Gastrin), Pituitary Adenoma (Prolactin, ACTH).

    MEN 2a (Sipple syndrome)– Medullary Carcinoma of the Thyroid (Calcitonin), Pheochromocytoma and Parathyroid Tumor.

    MEN 2b – Medullary Carcinoma of Thyroid, Pheochromocytoma,Marfanoid Features/Mucosal Neuromas
  21. Important culture media you need to know in Microbiology:
    1. Levinthal & Mannitol salt agar: Staphylococcus Aureus
    2. Crystal Violet blood agar: Streptococcus pyogenes
    3. Loeffler's serum slope & Potassium tellurite blood agar: Corynebacterium diphtheriae
    4. Saboraud's dextrose agar: Nocardia
    5. Robertson cooked meat medium: All Anaerobic bacteria
    6. PLET medium: Bacillus Anthracis
    7. Thayer martin or New york city medium: Gonococcus & Meningococcus
    8. MacConkey's agar: All Enterobactericeae
    9. Selenite F Broth & Tetrathionate broth: Salmonella and shigella
    10. Bordet gengue medium: Bordetella pertussis
  22. VACCINE STRAINS

    Measles – Edmonston Zogreb Strain
    Typh-Oral – Ty21a Strain
    Chicken Pox – OKA Strain
    Rabies – Pitts Moore Strain
    BCG – Danish 1331
    Polio – Lancing, Leon, Brunhilde Strain
    Mumps- Jeryll Lynn Strain
    Yellow Fever- 17 D vaccine Strain
    Hep A – HM175/GBM strain
    Rubella- RA 27/3 Strain
    Diphtheria- Park Williams 8 Strain
    japanese encephalitis: SA 14-14-2, beijing and nakayama strains
  23. Important culture media you need to know in Microbiology:
    1. Levinthal & Mannitol salt agar: Staphylococcus Aureus
    2. Crystal Violet blood agar: Streptococcus pyogenes
    3. Loeffler's serum slope & Potassium tellurite blood agar: Corynebacterium diphtheriae
    4. Saboraud's dextrose agar: Nocardia
    5. Robertson cooked meat medium: All Anaerobic bacteria
    6. PLET medium: Bacillus Anthracis
    7. Thayer martin or New york city medium: Gonococcus & Meningococcus
    8. MacConkey's agar: All Enterobactericeae
    9. Selenite F Broth & Tetrathionate broth: Salmonella and shigella
    10. Bordet gengue medium: Bordetella pertussis
    11. Castneda method: Brucella
    12. Cetrimide or dettol agar: Pseudomonas
    13. Lowenstein jensen (L-J medium) or dorset egg medium: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
    14. PPLO medium: Mycoplasma
    15. skirrow's medium: H.pylori
  24. Important shelf-lives of contraceptives you need to know for FMGE:
    (Shelf-life is only important for IUDs)
    1. Copper IUDs - 3-5 yrs
    2. Progestasert - 1 year
    3. CuT 200 - 4 years
    4. Nova T - 5 yrs
    5. LNG IUD - 7-10 yrs
    6. CuT 380A - 10 yrs
  25. swimming pool conjuctivitis-chl.trachomatis and adenovirus

    Swimmer's itch-schistosoma japonicum

    Swimming pool granuloma-m.marinum

    swimmers view-best 2view C7&T1

    swimming pool urine odor-hawkinsinuria

    swimmer ear-ps.aeruginosa
  26. Rajesh Saagar

    Rajesh Saagar New Member

    Do anyone provide some useful tips to remember these one-liners easily. Does understanding of concepts work here or one should read and understand these questions separately.

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