IMPOTANT TIPS TO PREPARE EXAMS.

Discussion in 'USMLE STEP 1' started by Helper, Mar 13, 2005.

  1. Helper

    Helper Guest

    Hematuria: urethral causes

    NUTS:
    Neoplasm
    Urethritis
    Tumour
    Stone



    Histiocytosis X: hallmark finding

    "Birbeck's rackets is X":
    Tennis rackets under electron microscope is Histiocystosis X.
    Consider 2 tennis rackets in an X formation.



    Oral cancer risks

    PATH LAB:
    Plummer-vinson syndrome
    Alcohol
    Tobacco
    Human papilloma virus
    Leukoplakia
    Asbestos
    Bad oral hygiene

    Parkinson's disease: symptoms

    PQRST:
    Paucity of expression
    parQinson
    Rigidity (cogwheel)
    Stooped posture
    Tremor at rest
    · If can't remember that Parkinson's tremor is the one that is "resting tremor", look at the last 3 letters: RST.



    TTP: clinical features

    Thrombosis and thrombocytopenia PARTNER together:
    Platelet count low
    Anemia (microangiopathic hemolytic)
    Renal failure
    Temperature rise
    Neurological deficits
    ER admission (as it is an emergency)

    COPD: blue bloater vs. pink puffer diseases


    emPhysema has letter P (and not B) so Pink Puffer.
    chronic Bronchitis has letter B (and not P) so Blue Bloater.

    Portal hypertension: features

    ABCDE:
    Ascites
    Bleeding (haematemesis, piles)
    Caput medusae
    Diminished liver
    Enlarged spleen

    Cushing syndrome

    CUSHING:
    Central obesity/ Cervical fat pads/ Collagen fiber weakness/ Comedones (acne)
    Urinary free corisol and glucose increase
    Striae/ Suppressed immunity
    Hypercortisolism/ Hypertension/ Hyperglycemia/ Hirsutism
    Iatrogenic (Increased administration of corticosteroids)
    Noniatrogenic (Neoplasms)
    Glucose intolerance/ Growth retardation



    Duchenne vs. Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) : Doesn't Make Dystrophin.
    Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD): Badly Made Dystrophin (a truncated protein).

    Thyroid carcinoma: frequency

    "Please Feel My A$$":
    In order of most frequent to least frequent, and in order from least aggressive to most aggressive:
    Papillary carcinoma
    Follicular carcinoma
    Medullary thyroid carcinoma
    Anaplastic carcinoma



    Parkinson's symptoms

    RATS

    Rigitidy (cogwheel)
    Akinesia
    Tremor (resting)
    Shuffling gate



    Thrombus: possible fates
    DOPE:
    Dissolution
    Organization & repair
    Propagation
    Embolization



    Pick's disease: features
    PICK:
    Progressive degeneration of neurons
    Intracytoplasmic Pick bodies
    Cortical atrophy
    Knife edge gyri
  2. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Alzheimer's disease: features
    RONALD (Ronald Reagan, a famous victim):
    Reduction of Ach
    Old age
    Neurofibrillary tangles
    Atrophy of cerebral cortex (diffuse)
    Language impairment
    Dementia (MC in elderly)/ Down’s syndrome



    Wernicke-Korsakoff's psychosis: findings
    COAT RACK:
    · Wernicke's encephalopathy (acute phase):
    Confusion
    Ophthalmoplegia
    Ataxia
    Thiamine tx.
    · Korsakoff's psychosis (chronic phase):
    Retrograde amnesia
    Anterograde amnesia
    Confabulation
    Korsakoff's psychosis



    Pneumothorax: presentation
    P-THORAX:
    Pleuretic pain
    Trachea deviation
    Hyperresonance
    Onset sudden
    Reduced breath sounds (& dypsnea)
    Absent fremitus
    X-ray shows collapse

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia III: components
    MEN III is a disease of 3 M's:
    Medullary thyroid carcinoma
    Medulla of adrenal (pheochromocytoma)
    Mucosal neuroma



    Virchow's triad (venous thrombosis)
    "VIRchow":
    Vascular trauma
    Increased coagulability
    Reduced blood flow (stasis)

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: signs
    FAT RN:
    Fever
    Anemia
    Thrombocytopenia
    Renal problems
    Neurologic dysfunction



    Parkinson's disease: symptoms
    PQRST:
    Paucity of expression
    parQinson
    Rigidity (cogwheel)
    Stooped posture
    Tremor at rest
    · If can't remember that Parkinson's tremor is the one that is "resting tremor", look at the last 3 letters: RST.

    APKD: signs, complications, accelerators
    11 B's:
    · Signs:
    Bloody urine
    Bilateral pain [vs. stones, which are usually unilateral pain]
    Blood pressure up
    Bigger kidneys
    Bumps palpable
    · Complications:
    Berry aneurysm
    Biliary cysts
    Bicuspid valve [prolapse and other problems]
    · Accelerators:
    Boys
    Blacks
    Blood pressure high



    Pericarditis: findings
    PERICarditis:
    Pulsus paradoxus
    ECG changes
    Rub
    Increased JVP
    Chest pain [worse on inspiration, better when lean forward]



    Dandy-Walker syndrome: components
    "Dandy Walker Syndrome":
    Dilated 4th ventricle
    Water on the brain
    Small vermis

    Blood disorders: commoner sex
    HE (male) gets:
    HEmophilia (X-linked)
    HEinz bodies (G6PD deficiency, causing HEmolytic anemia: X-linked)
    HEmochromatosis (male predominance)
    HEart attacks (male predominance)
    HEnoch-Schonlein purpura (male predominance)
    SHE (female) gets:
    SHEehan's syndrome

    Ovarian cancers: important types, by WHO classification
    · Surface:
    "My Sister Began Experiencing Cancer":
    Mucinous
    Serous
    Brenner
    Endometrioid
    Clear
    · Germ cell:
    "Doctor Examined The Ovaries":
    Dysgerminoma
    Endometrial sinus
    Teratoma
    Ovarian choriocarcinoma
    · Sex cord:
    "She Felt Grim":
    Sertoli-Leydig
    Fibroma
    Granulosa-theca
    · Metastatic
    "Killed":
    Krukenberg

    Haemochromatosis definition, classic triad
    "Iron man triathalon":
    Iron man: deposition of iron in many body tissues.
    · Triathalon has 3 components, which match triad:
    Swimming: Skin pigmentation
    Biking: Bronze diabetes
    Marathon: Micronodular pigment cirrhosis
    ·

    Buerger's disease features
    "burger SCRAPS":
    Segmenting thrombosing vasculitis
    Claudication (intermittent)
    Raynaud's phenomenon
    Associated with smoking
    Pain, even at rest
    Superficial nodular phlebitis
    · Alternatively, if hungry for more detail [sic], "CRISP PIG burgers":
    Chronic ulceration
    Raynaud's phenomenon
    Intermittent claudication
    Segmenting, thrombosing vasculitis
    Pain, even at rest
    Phlebitis (superficial nodular)
    Idiopathic
    Gangrene

    Cardiovascular risk factors
    FLASH BODIES:
    Family history
    Lipids
    Age
    Sex
    Homocystinaemia
    Blood pressure
    Obesity
    Diabetes mellitus
    Inflammation (raised CRP)/ Increased thrombosis
    Exercise
    Smoking
  3. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Kawasaki Disease Criteria
    "Be careful when riding a Kawasaki motorcycle, you might get CREAMed.
    Conjunctivitis (non-exudative)
    Rash (polymorphous non-vesicular)
    Edema (or erythema of hands or feet)
    Adenopathy (cervical, often unilateral)
    Mucosal involvement (erythema or fissures or crusting)
    To have Kawasaki disease you must have fever for greater than 5 days plus 4 of the above.



    Achalasia: 1 possible cause, 1 treatment
    aCHAlasia:
    1 possible cause: CHAgas' disease
    1 treatment: Ca++ CHAnnel blockers



    MI: post-MI complications
    ACT RAPID:
    Arrhythmias (SVT, VT, VF)
    Congestive cardiac failure
    Tamponade/ Thromboembolic disorders
    Rupture (ventricle, septum, papillary muscle)
    Aneurysm (ventricle)
    Pericarditis
    Infaction (a second one)
    Death/ Dressler's syndrome



    MI: sequence of elevated enzymes after MI
    "Time to CALL 911":
    · From first to appear to last:
    Troponin
    CK-MB
    AST
    LDH1

    Pick's disease: location, action, epidemiology
    ·
    Pick axes are Picking away at the old woman's cerebral cortex, causing cortical atrophy.
    2 pick axes on her brain: frontal lobe and anterior 1/3 of temporal.
    An old woman, since epidemiology is elderly & more common in women.



    Bronchial obstruction: consequences
    APPLE BABE:
    Atelectasis
    Pleural adhesions
    Pleuritis
    Lipid pneumonia
    Effusion->organisation->fibrosis
    Bronchiectasis
    Abscess
    Broncho and lobar pneumonia
    Emphysema

    Respiratory distress syndrome in infants: major risk factors
    PCD (Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia, a cause of Respiratory distress syndrome):
    Prematurity
    Cesarean section
    Diabetic mother

    Carcinomas having tendency to metastasize to bone
    "Particular Tumours Love Killing Bone":
    Prostate
    Thyroid
    Lung
    Kidney
    Breast



    Takayasu's disease is Pulseless disease
    "Can't Tak'a ya pulse" (Can't take your pulse):
    Takayasu's disease known as Pulseless disease, since pulse is weakened in the upper extremities.

    MI: sequence of elevated enzymes after MI
    "C-AST-Le" (castle):
    CK-MB first
    AST second
    LDH third
    · Also: can use the last 'E' for ESR.

    Nasopharyngeal malignant cancers
    NASOPharyngeal:
    Nasophayngeal
    Adenocarcinoma
    Squamous cell carcinoma
    Olfactory neuroblastoma
    Plasmacytoma

    Baldness risk factors
    "Daddy Doesn't Deny Getting Hair Implants":
    Diet
    Disease
    Drugs
    Genes
    Hormones
    Injury to the scalp



    Anemia: TIBC finding to differentiate iron deficiency vs. chronic disease
    TIBC levels at the:
    Top=Iron deficiency.
    Bottom=Chronic disease.



    Endometrial carcinoma: risk factors
    ENDOMET:
    Elderly
    Nulliparity
    Diabetes
    Obesity
    Menstrual irregularity
    Estrogen therapy
    hyperTension



    Emphysema: types, most important feature of each
    "Cigarettes Is Primary Problem":
    · Types:
    Centrilobular
    Irregular
    Pancinar
    Paraseptal
    · Most important feature for each type (in order as above):
    Cigarrettes
    Inflammation healed to scar
    Protease inhibitor deficiency (a1-antitrypsin)
    Pneumothorax
    · "Cigarettes is primary problem" used since cigarettes is most common cause of emphysema.
    · Keeping P's straight: Pan is antitrypsin.
  4. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Renal failure (chronic): consequences
    ABCDEFG:
    Anemia
    -due to less EPO
    Bone alterations
    -osteomalacia
    -osteoporosis
    -von Recklinghausen
    Cardiopulmonary
    -atherosclerosis
    -CHF
    -hypertension
    -pericarditis
    D vitamin loss
    Electrolyte imbalance
    -sodium loss/gain
    -metabolic acidosis
    -hyperkalemia
    Feverous infections
    -due to leukocyte abnormalities and dialysis hazards
    GI disturbances
    -haemorrhagic gastritis
    -peptic ulcer disease
    -intractable hiccups



    Endometrial carcinoma: risk factors
    HONDA:
    Hypertension
    Obesity
    Nulliparity
    Diabetes
    Age (increased)

    Thyroid storm characteristics
    "Storm HITS girls cAMP":
    Thyroid storm due to:
    Hyperthyroidism
    Infection or Illness at childbirth
    Trauma
    Surgery
    · girls: Thyroid storm more common in females.
    · cAMP: Tx involves high dose of beta blockers (beta receptors work via cAMP)
    · Alternatively: "S#IT storm": Surgery, Hyperthyroidism, Infection/ Illness, Trauma.



    Tabes Dorsalis morphology
    DORSALIS:
    Dorsal column degeneration
    Orthopedic pain (Charcot joints)
    Reflexes decreased (deep tendon)
    Shooting pain
    Argyll-Robertson pupils
    Locomotor ataxia
    Impaired proprioception
    Syphilis



    TB: features
    TB is characterised by 4 C's:
    Caseation
    Calcification
    Cavitation
    Cicatrization



    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: symptom triad
    "PET WASP":
    Pyrogenic infections
    Eczema
    Thrombocytopenia
    · WASP is the name of the causitive agent: Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein.
    · Alternatively: Wiskott=Hot, Aldrich=Itch, Syndrom=Throm.

    Kawasaki disease: features
    Disease name: a Kawasaki motorcycle.
    Usually young children, epidemic in Japan: Japanese child rides the motorcycle.
    Conjunctival, oral erythema: red eyes, mouth.
    Fever: thermometer.
    Erythema of palms, soles: red palms, soles.
    Generalized rash: rash dots.
    Cervical lymphadenitis: enlarged cervical nodes with inflammation arrows.
    Vasculitis of arteries: inflammation arrows on arteries.
    Cardiovascular sequelae [20%]: inflammation arrows on cardiac arteries.
    Treat with aspirin: aspirin headlight.



    Ulcerative colitis: features
    ULCERATIONS:
    Ulcers
    Large intestine
    Carcinoma [risk]
    Extraintestinal manifestations
    Remnants of old ulcers [pseudopolyps]
    Abscesses in crypts
    Toxic megacolon [risk]
    Inflamed, red, granular mucosa
    Originates at rectum
    Neutrophil invasion
    Stools bloody
  5. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Hi, I need help in pathology. Can I have a look at it? Thanks
  6. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Hello Helper, thanks very much for the Pathology Pneumonic. I appreciate that.
  7. Reply to contest question of the episode telecasted on 24.06

    :lol: HELLO SIR IT IS AN EXCELLENT JOB> THANK YOU
  8. Guest

    Guest Guest

    here many mnemonics are posted...
  9. Guest

    Guest Guest

    bitu89

    hi,
    thanks for the PAthology mnemonics
  10. guest....me

    guest....me Guest

    THANX A ZILLION....
  11. Guest

    Guest Guest

    What are the subjects included in USMLE Step 1 exam

    Salamualikum
    I am a medical student from china and i am planning to take my USMLE step 1 exam want to know what all subjects are include in it and study tips too

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