Increased during pregnancy

Discussion in 'MRCOG Forum' started by Guest, Nov 25, 2006.

  1. Guest

    Guest Guest

    increased during pregnancy :.....
    *renal excretion of HCO3
    *plasma volume 2600_____ 3800ml.(until 32wks.) it is related to the size of the fetus .
    *Red cell mass(1400ml _____1650-1800) until term .
    *COP (4.5l___6.1 l/min) = 40% early and reach plateau at 24 __ 30wks
    *HR (80 ___ 90/min) = 10 %
    * O2 consumption (250 __ 300ml ) increased by 30 __ 50 ml at term .
    *stroke volume increased by 64 __ 71 ml ... this inc in cardiac out put 1500 ml ( skin 500--- uterus 400 at term 700..... kidney 300 others (git , breast 300).
    *Renin inc in pregnancy and estrogen containing pills but the action of angiotensinogen 2 is blocked so decreased PR
    *Fluid transfer across the endothelium so Oedema.
    *EDHF (endothelial derived hyperpolarizing factor )
    * Throboxane ( 3-5 times) until term
    *Endothelin .
    *clotting factors 1,5, 8 .
    * Increased PAI (plasminogen activating inhibitor===> decreased fibrinolysis)
    *Increased PTA (tissue plasmin activator)==> inc fibrinolysis
    *Generalised inflamatory response
    *erythropoiten (3times )
    *Ventliation due to progesterone(40% more in the first trimester).
    * The inc in O2 is 50ml ( 20 fetus , 18 metabolic activity ,6 COP , 6 inc inrenal work.
    *the sensitivity of the respiratoratory to Co2( like does hypoxia )
    *Diaphragm 4cm ( transverse diameter of the chest 2cm , subcostal angle 38 - 103 degree )
    * Pulmonary blood flow 40%
    * pulmonary arterial pressure (12--19%)
    *Tidal volume 200ml
    *Alveular ventilation 30%
    *Vital capacity (MAY).
    *Minute volume (3L)
    *Kidney length (1cm ) due to inc cell size.
    *Ureter dilated due to ( proges cause smooth muscle reaxation+obstruction by the uterus and collectig system)
    *Renal blood flow 1.2L/min___1.5L/min early and decreased in the 3rd trimest )
    *GFR(120 ml/min.
    *filtered load of glucose ====> glucosuria.
    *Renal excretion of sugars, water and soluble vitamins ,proteins(albumin)
    and transferin , amino acids.
    *Aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone , cortisol ( total and free ) max in 3rd trimest.
    *Inc filtered load of sodium (balanced by reabsorption)
    *Apettite and thirst .
    *Motilia and somatostatin
    *Gums.swell and bled easily , caries.
    *Gastric emptying time (50 to 100 min )
    *Inc osteolytic activity=====> inc alkaline phosphatase
    *Serum bile acids ===>cholyglycin
    *Fatty acids
    *Enhanced insulin response to glucose early in the 2nd trimest so inc in 2hr plasma glucose
    *Binding proteins , transferin binding capacity
    *B globin
    * SHBG.
    * IgM , IgD.
    *lipids (TG , cholesterol ,phospho lipids , FFAs , lipoproteins ,.
    *Pro vit A ,E ,D .
    *copper (2--3 times ) due to inc ceruplasmin.
    *susceptability to infection (polio , infuensa , malaria ).
    *Erythropoiesis due to ( erythroid hyperplasia and inc transferin )
    *TWBC (neutrophils)
    *Red cell fragility (RC)
    *red cell size .
    *Fibrinogen. FAP
    *Factor 7,8,9,10,12 from the third trimest
    *Fetal arrterial presure through out prgnanacy.
    *Water reabsorption in large itestine .
    Iron absorbtion
    *Size of the thyroid gland .
    *Protein bound iodine .
    *total T3
    *Androstenadione , Testerone.
    *The proportion of B to T cells AND WE HAVE DECREASED DURING PREGNANCY SOON ( URS nagm)
  2. Guest

    Guest Guest

    plz see this
  3. prian7481

    prian7481 Guest

    Also there is increase in

  4. Guest

    Guest Guest

    this is brilliant..thanks :)
  5. enigma

    enigma Guest

    hi mandible,cn u plz tell me about books that r precise nd to the point.

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