MAHARASHTRA: 2011 MCQS RECALL

Discussion in 'NEET 2013 All india Exam' started by Guest, Feb 7, 2011.

  1. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Morbid obesity bmi..
    Chloride equilibrium equation..
    ORS to be given in first 4hrs to 1yr old..
    Laplace law for hollow viscus..
    Renal transport maximum signifies..
    Drug of choice for legionella..
    Drug of choice for mucor.. Liposomal amphoteracin
    Aspergillus in hypersensitivity pneumonitis is almost always..
    Post traumatic stress disorder..
    Paranoid schizophrenia..
    Radius of ant. surface of cornea..
    Cells in ant chamber of eye..
    Safe strategy for..
    Luc's abcess..
    Painless ulcer which bleeds to touch on genitals after contact with csw..
    Lgv caused by..
    Strain used for mumps vaccine production..
    Sillvians index denotes..
    Hydatiform mole..
    Still birth wt..
    ABO and HLA are transmitted as.. Dominant, codominant, pseudodominant, recessive
    adrenal mass surgically removed when it starts exceeding.. 1.5, 4, 7.5, 10
    which is transmitted as autosomal dominant.. MEN 2B etc
    attached anteriorly on greater trochanter.. Gluteus max, medius,
    All except can be managed by tension band wiring.. Colle's patellar, olecrenon, medial maleolus
    most common congenital deformity at knee.. Varus, valgus etc
    most common in osteoarthritis knee..
    Most common congenital bleeding disorder.. Won willi, burnrd soulier
    knee joint communicates with.. Superficial infrapatellar, deep infrapatellar, prepatellar, parapatellar
    mortality in fracture first rib is.. 5, 10, 30 percent
    thoracotomy in haemothorax indicated in all except.. Initial output >1500, output 100ml/hr, cardiac tamponade
    Avascular necrosis of head femur occurs in fracture.. Intracapsular, extracapsular, trochantre
    best skeletal xray for 1 to 13 yrs.. Hand and carpals, elbow, shoulder
    hiv for macrophage strain receptor is?.. CD4, CCR5, CXR4, CD8
    codmans triangle characteristic of.. Osteosarcoma
    correct about osteoclastoma is.. Arises from epiphysis, always benign
  2. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Ophthalm
    1] Radius of curvature of ant surf of cornea 7.8mm
    2] Latent squint- heterophoria.
    3] SAFE strategy- trachoma.
    4] KPs, AC deposits- iridocyclitis.
    5] AID for blindness control prog- DANIDA.
    6] Organism of angular conjunctivits- moraxella.
    7] Fan shaped proliferation in eye-?????

    Dermat-
    1] Ulcer with bleeding after visit to CSW- Donovanosis.
    2] Civatte bodies and max joseph space- lichen planus.
    3] Auspitz sign- psoriasis.
    4] Intraepidermal Antibodies- pemphigus vulgaris.
    5] Koebner's phenomenon is not seen in ??????

    Anesthesia
    1] Hoffamn degradation in- atracurium.
    2] Max protein binding- bupivacine.
    3] effective and reliable technique to prevent post dural puncture headache.-????? IV fluids+NSAIDs , epidural hartman's solution??
    4] Scoline effects are potentiated by- halothane???
    5] Capnography useful for- confirming position of endo tube.

    Forensic
    1] Sexual perversion with pain to self- masochism.
    2] Medicolegal case vs doc within- 2/ 3 yrs????
    3] Le facies sympathiques- antemortem hanging.
    4] Viscera for toxicology is preserved in- Sat NaCl.
    5] Cuso4 is used in treating which poisoning??????
    6] Polce firing death- inquest by- magistrate.
    7] Not seen in salt water drowning- hyperkalemia and hemolysis.

    ANATOMY
    1)Anorectal ring formed by all except-
    a)puborectalis
    b)sup ext sphincter
    3)deep ext sphincter
    d)int anal sphincter

    2)muscle attached to greater trochanter
    a)glut max
    b)glut med
    c)glut min
    d)piriformis

    PSYCHIATRY
    1)a 28 yr old female low mood, feeling dat her neighbour put camera to spy on her-
    a)paranoid schizophrenia
    b)delusion

    2)defence mechanism of not accepting- denial

    3)catastrophic reaction seen in
    a)schizophrenia
    b)anxiety
    c)depresssion

    4)7 yr old boy having repetitive actions
    a)autism
    b)learning disorder
    c)??
    d)??

    Ortho
    1] Congenital dislocation of knee- deformity- hyperextension of knee???
    2] Deformity in primary osteoarthritis- genu valgum? varum?
    3] tension band wiring is not used in- colles fracture.
    4] Mortality in 1st rib fracture.???
    5] Not seen in hyperparathyriodism- osteosclerosis.
    6] True abt giant cell tumour- epiphyseal.
    7] Codmans triangle in- osteosarcoma.

    Psychi
    1] Lady with paranoid delusions- delusional disorder. [ bec she has nonbizare delusions and not any other s/s of schizo]
    2] Catastrophic reaction in- anxiety neurosis??
    3] Mania typical sign- flight of ideas.
    4] Post traumatic stress disorder- hist of woman with accident.
    5] Exposure therapy is a type of- Behavioural/ cognitive therapy.
    6] Neroleptic malignant syndrome is caused by- all 3.

    ENT
    *Luc's abcess..
    *Which one has malignant potential.. Atrophic rhinitis, rhinoscleroma,

    *all are true about post pharyngeal abcess except...
    A) Presents laterally on post pharyngeal wall
    B) torticolis is uncommon
    C)associated with vertebral caries
    D)extends in pharyngeal muscles?

    *all muscles involved with eustachian tube except..
    A] tensor veli palatini
    B] levator veli palatini
    C] tensor tympani
    D] palatoglossus

    *carcinoma of head and neck with worst prognosis..
    A] adenoid cystic
    B] verrucous squamus
    C] keratinized squamous
    D] lymphoepitheloid

    * radical parotidectomy all are done except.. Preservation of facial nerve?

    PHARMAC
    1)glp1 AGONIST-exenatide

    2)drugs causing malignant hyperthermia

    3)fully humanised abody used for rheumatoid arthritis- adalimumab

    4)domperidone acts on which receptors?

    5)antiretroviral causing nephrolithiasis- indinavir

    6)drugs causing peliosis hepaptitis all except- OCP,danazol,analgesic..

    7] drug of choice for mucor.. Voriconazole, liposomal amphoteracin

    8]drug of choice for legionella.. Azithromycin, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, imipenim

    9]selective alpha 2 blocker.. Yuhimbin, phentolamine, prazocin

    10]pregnant lady travelling to P.Falciparum endemic area resistant to chloroquine, prophylaxis indicated is... Proguanil/atorvaquine, mefloquine, primaquine

    11]mebendazole 100mg single dose to be repeated after 14 days is indicated for all children in a family suffering from.. Entrobious, ascariasis,

    12]coronary steal caused by.. Dipyridamol

    13]GLP1 agonist.. Exenetide

    14]pyridoxine? deficiency by all except.. Hydralazine, griesofulvin, INH, pencillamine

    15]all are selective beta blockers except.. Pindolol


    Patho
    1] Amyloid dt calcitonin is seen in- medulllary thyroid cancer.
    2] Anti apoptosis - Bcl-2.
    3] Marker for pancreatic cancer- CA 19-9.
    4] Prog to cirrhosis depends on- etio.
    5] Orderly spread- so staging is imp in- hodgkins.
    6] Heinz body is seen in- G6PD defic.
    7] Cornea is cloudy in which MPS- all 3.
    8] Earliest feature on treating iron deficieny is- decrease in irritability.
    9] Crescents are seen in- all 3.
    10] Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is seen in all except-????
    11] Schauman body in- sarcoidosis.
    12] Acquired intrinsic defect in RBC- PNH.

    Micro
    1] Staph can be disting frm micrococci by- catalase test??
    2] Loeffler's serum slope is - selective medium.
    3] All true abt capsule except- stained with grm stain.
    4] Exotoxin produced by shigella dysenteriae.
    5] Temp of hot air oven- 160.
    6] M.Avium is- nonphotochromogen.
    7] which parasite cause pulmonary s/s- all 3????
    8] Filariform larvae is infective form for- hookworm.
    9] In ether formal conc technique- parasites are found in which layer????
    10] Receptor for HIV virus on macrophage- CCR5.
    11] White piedra is dt-????
    12] weil felix is useless in- q fever.
    13] In schwan cell, m.leprae grow in- 12-14 days.
    14] B.recurrentis is transmitted by- Lice.
  3. Guest

    Guest Guest

    1)case for negligence - within 2 yrs(new daga)


    2)nalgonda technique -deflurination of water


    3)nucleus ambigus-CN 9,10,11


    4)crypt of liberkuhn-duodenum


    5)SAFE Strategy-trachoma


    6)LGV-caused by c.trachomatis


    7)k+ nernst potential = -90mV


    8 )Edward syn - trisomy 18


    9)ca cervix,radiation at pt a = 8000


    10)laplace law= 2T/R


    11) paneth cells -lysozme


    12)spigelian hernia - at arcuate line


    13) Delrome operation -for rectal prolapse


    14)women after going through tsunami- PTSD


    15)true about osteoclastoma-epiphyseal tumor


    16) codman triangle seen in - osteosarcoma


    17) string of beads appearance - small bowel obstruction


    18 )capacitation of sperms occurs in - female genital tract


    19)type of dominance in ABO blood group -codominance


    20)paramesonephric duct in female doesn't forms - ovaries


    21)strawberry vagina -t.vaginalis


    22)hoffman deg- atracurium


    23) normal cell rests in body - choristoma(confirmed)


    24)auspitz sign seen in - psoriasis


    25)color change in orthotoludine test in presence of chlorine - yellow


    26)cock screw oesophagus- diffuse oesophagal spasm


    27) emphysema in alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency -panacinar(confirmed)


    28 )le facies sympatheticus - antemortem hanging


    29)Cu sulphate is antidote for - phosphorus poisoning(confirmed)


    30)women thinks neighbour has put camera behind her head -delusion disorder
  4. Guest

    Guest Guest

    31. Luc's abcess - EAM
    32. Killian's dehiscence - Thyre-crico pharyngeus
    33. MDG goals health - 3 of 8
    34. Copora anarcea - pineal
    35. no tension band wiring - colle's
    36. neutropeninc fuo -<500
    37. sea fans retina - sickle retinopathy
    38. P-selectin is for Rolling
  5. Guest

    Guest Guest

    1. ANAT-nucleus ambigus- 9,10,11 cn -
    2. ANAT-¤crypt of liberkuhn-duodenum -
    3. ANAT-attached anteriorly on greater trochanter.. Gluteus max, medius,-
    4. ANAT-knee joint communicates with.. Superficial infrapatellar, deep infrapatellar, prepatellar, parapatellar -
    5. ANAT-crypts of leiburkuhn seen in.. Duodenum, gall bladder -
    6. ANAT-1)Anorectal ring formed by all except- a)puborectalis b)sup ext sphincter 3)deep ext sphincter d)int anal sphincter -
    7. ANAT-2)muscle attached to greater trochanter a)glut max b)glut med c)glut min d)piriformis-
    8. anat-1)Anorectal ring formed by all except- a)puborectalis b)sup ext sphincter 3)deep ext sphincter d)int anal sphincter -
    9. anat-2)muscle attached to greater trochanter a)glut max b)glut med c)glut min d)piriformis-
    10. ANESTHESIA-22)hoffman deg- atracurium -
    11. ANESTHESIA-potentiation of sch - isoflurane(net)-
    12. ANESTHESIA-1] Hoffamn degradation in- atracurium. -
    13. ANESTHESIA-2] Max protein binding- bupivacine. -
    14. ANESTHESIA-3] effective and reliable technique to prevent post dural puncture headache.-????? IV fluids+NSAIDs , epidural hartman's solution??
    15. ANESTHESIA-4] Scoline effects are potentiated by- halothane??? -
    16. ANESTHESIA-5] Capnography useful for- confirming position of endo tube-
    17. ANESTHESIA-6] Neroleptic malignant syndrome is caused by- all 3.-
    18. ANESTHESIA-1] Hoffamn degradation in- atracurium. -
    19. ANESTHESIA-2] Max protein binding- bupivacine. -
    20. ANESTHESIA-3] effective and reliable technique to prevent post dural puncture headache.-????? IV fluids+NSAIDs , epidural hartman's solution??
    21. ANESTHESIA-4] Scoline effects are potentiated by- halothane??? -
    22. ANESTHESIA-5] Capnography useful for- confirming position of endo tube-
    23. biochemistry-highest phospholipid content-hdl -
    24. biochemistry-fastest mobility-hdl -
    25. biochemistry-max chl-ldl-
    26. biochemistry-Proof reading-dna polymerase 2?-
    27. biochemistry-glucose6phosphate is substrate for a/e-
    28. biochemistry-Best estimate of quality of protein.. Amino acid score, npu -
    29. biochemistry-xantheuric acid in urine . -
    30. biochemistry-defeciency of niacin seen in-- -inh therapy /-def of pyridoxine /-def of riboflavin /-all of the above-
    31. biochemistry-3.Not part of oxi phosphoryln -Nadh oxi, cyto c ect.-
    32. DERMATOLOGY-¤LGV-c.trachomatis -
    33. DERMATOLOGY-Painless ulcer which bleeds to touch on genitals after contact with csw.. -
    34. DERMATOLOGY-Lgv caused by.. -
    35. DERMATOLOGY-1] Ulcer with bleeding after visit to CSW- Donovanosis. -
    36. DERMATOLOGY-2] Civatte bodies and max joseph space- lichen planus. -
    37. DERMATOLOGY-3] Auspitz sign- psoriasis. -
    38. DERMATOLOGY-4] Intraepidermal Antibodies- pemphigus vulgaris. -
    39. DERMATOLOGY-5] Koebner's phenomenon is not seen in ????-
    40. DERMATOLOGY-1] Ulcer with bleeding after visit to CSW- Donovanosis. -
    41. DERMATOLOGY-2] Civatte bodies and max joseph space- lichen planus. -
    42. DERMATOLOGY-3] Auspitz sign- psoriasis. -
    43. DERMATOLOGY-4] Intraepidermal Antibodies- pemphigus vulgaris. -
    44. DERMATOLOGY-5] Koebner's phenomenon is not seen in ????-
    45. DERMATOLOGY-dennie morgan fold - atopic dermatitis-
    46. DERMATOLOGY-Koebner phenomenon a/e? - erythema multiforme, darrier's, scleromyxoedema, molluscum -
    47. DERMATOLOGY-Intraepidermal spilt?- pemphigus -
    48. DERMATOLOGY-24)auspitz sign seen in - psoriasis -
    49. ENT-Luc's abcess..-
    50. ENT-LUCS ABSESS- MASTOIDITIS-
    51. ENT-*Which one has malignant potential.. Atrophic rhinitis, rhinoscleroma, -
    52. ENT-*all are true about post pharyngeal abcess except... A) Presents laterally on post pharyngeal wall /B) torticolis is uncommon /C)associated with vertebral caries /D)extends in pharyngeal muscles?
    53. ENT-*all muscles involved with eustachian tube except.. A] tensor veli palatini B] levator veli palatini C] tensor tympani D] palatoglossus
    54. ent-*all are true about post pharyngeal abcess except... A) Presents laterally on post pharyngeal wall /B) torticolis is uncommon /C)associated with vertebral caries /D)extends in pharyngeal muscles?
    55. ent-*all muscles involved with eustachian tube except.. A] tensor veli palatini B] levator veli palatini C] tensor tympani D] palatoglossus
    56. ent-mucocele mc site- frontal sinus -
    57. FM-case for negligence - within 2 yrs-
    58. FM-what was that salt water drowning ans??was it the hyperkalemia option-
    59. FM-best skeletal xray for 1 to 13 yrs.. Hand and carpals, elbow, shoulder-
    60. FM-She is gratified only when you beat her.. Saddist? Etc -
    61. FM-medical negligence claimed within 2 yrs -
    62. FM-1] Sexual perversion with pain to self- masochism. -
    63. FM-2] Medicolegal case vs doc within- 2/ 3 yrs???? -
    64. FM-3] Le facies sympathiques- antemortem hanging. -
    65. FM-4] Viscera for toxicology is preserved in- Sat NaCl. -
    66. FM-5] Cuso4 is used in treating which poisoning?????? -
    67. FM-6] Polce firing death- inquest by- magistrate. -
    68. FM-7] Not seen in salt water drowning- hyperkalemia and hemolysis.-
    69. fm-1] Sexual perversion with pain to self- masochism. -
    70. fm-2] Medicolegal case vs doc within- 2/ 3 yrs???? -
    71. fm-3] Le facies sympathiques- antemortem hanging. -
    72. fm-4] Viscera for toxicology is preserved in- Sat NaCl. -
    73. fm-5] Cuso4 is used in treating which poisoning?????? -
    74. fm-6] Polce firing death- inquest by- magistrate. -
    75. fm-7] Not seen in salt water drowning- hyperkalemia and hemolysis.-
    76. fm-vicera preserved in . -
    77. fm-inquest in death due to police firing . -
    78. fm-Most potent cannabis? - majun, charas -
    79. FORENSIC-COPPER SULPHATE used in -phosphorous poison -
    80. GOB-Hydatiform mole.. -
    81. GOB-Still birth wt.. -
    82. GOB-1.Paramesonephric duct in female forms all of the following except a.fallopian tube /B.UTERUS /C.Upper 3/4th vagina /D.Ovary
    83. GOB-after 2hrs of 100mg glucose GTT diabeteis defined as.. 180, 120, 155, 126 -
    84. gob-after 2hrs of 100mg glucose GTT diabeteis defined as.. 180, 120, 155, 126 -
    85. gob-capacitation...in female genital tract-
    86. gob-21)strawberry vagina -t.vaginalis -
    87. gob-1.for head delivery in breech incision taken is duhrssen incision??? -
    88. gob-2.long 2r among d followin bitempo,biparietal,occi-tempo,submentovertical?? -
    89. gob-3.sm face 2 pubis delivery(nt rememberin d option-
    90. gob-4.Breach del incsn - kely /kern/ mac donald -
    91. MEDICINE-legionella DOC- AZITHROMYCIN -
    92. MEDICINE-CORECEPTOR FOR HIV ON T CELL- CXCR4-
    93. MEDICINE-MC pituitary adenoma- prolactinoma /nonfunctinal-
    94. MEDICINE-diabetes-distal symm polyneuropathy-
    95. MEDICINE-ABO BLD GROUP- Codominant -
    96. MEDICINE-MC jt in ankylosing spondylitis- SI jt -
    97. MEDICINE-hyperparathyroidism a/e -
    [98]. MEDICINE-Drug of choice for legionella.. -
    99. MEDICINE-Drug of choice for mucor.. Liposomal amphoteracin -
    100. MEDICINE-Aspergillus in hypersensitivity pneumonitis is almost always.. -
    101. MEDICINE-ABO and HLA are transmitted as.. Dominant, codominant, pseudodominant, recessive -
    102. MEDICINE-which is transmitted as autosomal dominant.. MEN 2B etc -
    103. MEDICINE-most common in osteoarthritis knee.. -
    104. MEDICINE-Most common congenital bleeding disorder.. Won willi, burnrd soulier -
    105. MEDICINE-hiv for macrophage strain receptor is?.. CD4, CCR5, CXR4, CD8-
    106. MEDICINE-tubercular peritonitis under.. Cat 1 -
    107. MEDICINE-5] Not seen in hyperparathyriodism- osteosclerosis. -
    108. MEDICINE-3)fully humanised abody used for rheumatoid arthritis- adalimumab -
    109. medicine-8] Earliest feature on treating iron deficieny is- decrease in irritability. -
    110. medicine-9] Crescents are seen in- all 3. -
    111. medicine-10] Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is seen in all except-???? -
    112. medicine-12] Acquired intrinsic defect in RBC- PNH.-
    113. medicine-secondary niacin defienciency in -
    114. medicine-8]drug of choice for legionella.. Azithromycin, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, imipenim -
    115. medicine-B/L facial palsy- sarcoid, GBS, ?? -
    116. medicine-36. neutropeninc fuo -<500 -
    117. medicine-autosomal dominant - men syndrome -
    118. MICROBIOLOGY-all r true abt capsule except-gram+ -
    119. MICROBIOLOGY-Lofflers slope- enriched medium -
    120. MICROBIOLOGY-Subtypes A $ B are of -IGA/M/D/E -
    121. MICROBIOLOGY-pedal botryomycosis - staph aureus -
    122. MICROBIOLOGY-not part of hacek – corynebact-
    123. MICROBIOLOGY-thermophillic actinnomycetes in all except.. Farmers lung, millers lung, mushroom worker, baggosis-
    124. microbiology-1] Staph can be disting frm micrococci by- catalase test?? -
    125. microbiology-2] Loeffler's serum slope is - selective medium. -
    126. microbiology-3] All true abt capsule except- stained with grm stain. -
    127. microbiology-4] Exotoxin produced by shigella dysenteriae. -
    128. microbiology-5] Temp of hot air oven- 160. -
    129. microbiology-6] M.Avium is- nonphotochromogen. -
    130. microbiology-7] which parasite cause pulmonary s/s- all 3???? -
    131. microbiology-8] Filariform larvae is infective form for- hookworm. -
    132. microbiology-9] In ether formal conc technique- parasites are found in which layer???? -
    133. microbiology-10] Receptor for HIV virus on macrophage- CCR5. -
    134. microbiology-11] White piedra is dt-???? -
    135. microbiology-12] weil felix is useless in- q fever. -
    136. microbiology-13] In schwan cell, m.leprae grow in- 12-14 days. -
    137. microbiology-14] B.recurrentis is transmitted by- Lice-
    138. microbiology-Repression metamoshosis? - hydatid, cysteceroid, cystecercous bovis. -
    139. microbiology-1] Which is not transmitted thro fish- paragonimus westermani [thro crab meat] -
    140. microbiology-2] Whose lifecycle shows regressive metamorphosis??? Cysicerci? -
    141. microbiology-3] Formal ether conc tech answer is Sediment. -
    142. microbiology-4] Botryomycosis is dt- staph.?-
    143. microbiology-6.Parasit Nt pasng thr lung circul? -
    144. microbiology-8.Organism requrng cholesterol for grwth ?Mycoplsm -
    145. ophtal-LASIK uses.. 1.excimer 2.argon 3.nd yag-
    146. ophtal-7] Cornea is cloudy in which MPS- all 3. -
    147. ophthalmology-doc for open angle glaucoma wid least systemic side effects? dipivefrine/lantanoprost/dorzolamide-
    148. OPTHAL-¤SAFE Strategy-trachoma -
    149. OPTHAL-sickle cell eye disease ? -
    150. OPTHAL-Radius of ant. surface of cornea.. -
    151. OPTHAL-Cells in ant chamber of eye.. -
    152. OPTHAL-Safe strategy for.. -
    153. OPTHAL-KP SEEN IN- IRIDOCYCLITIS -
    154. OPTHAL-1] Radius of curvature of ant surf of cornea 7.8mm -
    155. OPTHAL-2] Latent squint- heterophoria. -
    156. OPTHAL-3] SAFE strategy- trachoma. -
    157. OPTHAL-4] KPs, AC deposits- iridocyclitis. -
    158. OPTHAL-5] AID for blindness control prog- DANIDA. -
    159. OPTHAL-6] Organism of angular conjunctivits- moraxella. -
    160. OPTHAL-7] Fan shaped proliferation in eye-?????-
    161. OPTHALMOLOGY-1] Radius of curvature of ant surf of cornea 7.8mm -
    162. OPTHALMOLOGY-2] Latent squint- heterophoria. -
    163. OPTHALMOLOGY-3] SAFE strategy- trachoma. -
    164. OPTHALMOLOGY-4] KPs, AC deposits- iridocyclitis. -
    165. OPTHALMOLOGY-5] AID for blindness control prog- DANIDA. -
    166. OPTHALMOLOGY-6] Organism of angular conjunctivits- moraxella. -
    167. OPTHALMOLOGY-7] Fan shaped proliferation in eye-?????-
    168. ORTHO-osteoclastoma true -epiphyseal -
    169. ORTHO-codman triangle-osteosarcoma -
    170. ORTHO-giant cell tumour arises from- epiphysis -
    171. ORTHO-AVN of femur head? intracapsular # -
    172. ORTHO-CDH position- hyperextension/ varus -
    173. ORTHO-ankle sprain MC - ant. talofibular ligt -
    174. ORTHO-wirenot used for -colles#/ -
    175. ORTHO-hill sac lesion- recurrent ant/postdislocn shoulder-
    176. ORTHO-All except can be managed by tension band wiring.. Colle's patellar, olecrenon, medial maleolus -
    177. ORTHO-most common congenital deformity at knee.. Varus, valgus etc -
    178. ORTHO-Avascular necrosis of head femur occurs in fracture.. Intracapsular, extracapsular, trochantre -
    179. ORTHO-codmans triangle characteristic of.. Osteosarcoma-
    180. ORTHO-correct about osteoclastoma is.. Arises from epiphysis, always benign-
    181. ORTHO-1] Congenital dislocation of knee- deformity- hyperextension of knee??? -
    182. ORTHO-2] Deformity in primary osteoarthritis- genu valgum? varum? -
    183. ORTHO-3] tension band wiring is not used in- colles fracture. -
    184. ORTHO-6] True abt giant cell tumour- epiphyseal. -
    185. ORTHO-7] Codmans triangle in- osteosarcoma-
    186. ortho-1] Congenital dislocation of knee- deformity- hyperextension of knee??? -
    187. ortho-2] Deformity in primary osteoarthritis- genu valgum? varum? -
    188. ortho-3] tension band wiring is not used in- colles fracture. -
    189. ortho-6] True abt giant cell tumour- epiphyseal. -
    190. ortho-7] Codmans triangle in- osteosarcoma-
    191. ortho-7.Hyperextn knee -
    192. orthopaedics-1.most cmn abnormality in cong dislocation of knee?a.flexion b.hyperext c.varus d.vagus -
    193. orthopaedics-2.mc abnormality of knee joint c options recurvatum e-
    194. PAEDIATRICS-ORS to be given in first 4hrs to 1yr old.. -
    195. PAEDIATRICS-ORS to 1 yr child- 400-800 -
    196. paediatrics-ors fluid in first 4 hours - 400-600 ml -
    197. PATHOLOGY-corpora anserceae?-pineal gland-
    198 . PATHOLOGY-¤Edward syn - trisomy 18 -
    199. PATHOLOGY-phaechromocytoma-capsular & vascular invasion -
    200. PATHOLOGY-¤ paneth cells -lysozme -
    201. PATHOLOGY-choriostoma? -
    202. PATHOLOGY-ectopic rest of microscopically normal tissue--hamartoma,choriostoma -
    203. PATHOLOGY-all protect frm free radical injury except--catalase,superoxide dismutase,glutathione,glutamine -
    204. PATHOLOGY-in chediak higashi syndrome ol are seen except---neutrophilia,......-
    205. PATHOLOGY-mallory hyline in alcoholic hep -
    206. PATHOLOGY-progression to cirrohsis on etiology -
    207. PATHOLOGY-Type of emphysema seen in antitrypsin deff? a.panacinar /b.centriacinar-
    208. pathology-ectopic rest of microscopically normal tissue--hamartoma,choriostoma -
    209. pathology-all protect frm free radical injury except--catalase,superoxide dismutase,glutathione,glutamine -
    210. pathology-in chediak higashi syndrome ol are seen except---neutrophilia,......-
    211. pathology-2] Anti apoptosis - Bcl-2. -
    212. pathology-3] Marker for pancreatic cancer- CA 19-9. -
    213. pathology-4] Prog to cirrhosis depends on- etio. -
    214. pathology-5] Orderly spread- so staging is imp in- hodgkins. -
    215. pathology-6] Heinz body is seen in- G6PD defic. -
    216. pathology-11] Schauman body in- sarcoidosis. -
    217. pathology-Peliosis hepatitis a/e? - nsaid, ocp, anabolic steroid, danazol -
    218. pathology-23) normal cell rests in body - choristoma(confirmed) -
    219. pathology-38. P-selectin is for Rolling-
    220. pathology-thrombosthenin - contractile protein -
    221. pathology-Heart grwth factor 1.VEGF /2.fibroblst 3.? Some alfa oxy-
    222. pharmacology-glp1 agonist? -exenatide-
    223. pharmacology-Action of aspirn in small dose last for -? 3days / 7 days -
    224. pharmacology-malaria rx i preg-proguanil-
    225. pharmacology-Cannabinoid receptor-rimonabant-
    226. pharmacology-4)domperidone acts on which receptors? -
    227. pharmacology-5)antiretroviral causing nephrolithiasis- indinavir -
    228. pharmacology-6)drugs causing peliosis hepaptitis all except- OCP,danazol,analgesic-
    229. pharmacology-dobutamine is. -
    230. pharmacology-7] drug of choice for mucor.. Voriconazole, liposomal amphoteracin -
    231. pharmacology-9]selective alpha 2 blocker.. Yuhimbin, phentolamine, prazocin -
    232. pharmacology-10]pregnant lady travelling to P.Falciparum endemic area resistant to chloroquine, prophylaxis indicated is... Proguanil/atorvaquine, mefloquine, primaquine
    233. pharmacology-11]mebendazole 100mg single dose to be repeated after 14 days is indicated for all children in a family suffering from.. Entrobious, ascariasis,
    234. pharmacology-12]coronary steal caused by.. Dipyridamol -
    235. pharmacology-14]pyridoxine? deficiency by all except.. Hydralazine, griesofulvin, INH, pencillamine -
    236. pharmacology-15]all are selective beta blockers except.. Pindolol -
    237. physiology-normal lower esophageal sphincter pressure?-
    238. physiology-¤k+ rmp = -90mV -
    239. physiology-¤laplace law= 2T/R -
    240. physiology-LES presure- 10-25 mm hg-
    241. physiology-Chloride equilibrium equation.. -
    242. physiology-Laplace law for hollow viscus.. -
    243. physiology-Renal transport maximum signifies.. -
    244. physiology-equil. pot. for K+.....-90,+60 -
    245. physiology-action of somatostatin.. Inhibition of both insulin and glucagon -
    246. physiology-action of somatostatin.. Inhibition of both insulin and glucagon -
    247. physiology-paneth cells secrete .-
    248. physiology-equil. pot. for K+.....-90,+60 -
    249. physiology-10)laplace law= 2T/R -
    250. physiology-11) paneth cells -lysozme -
    251. physiology-firing level of ap - -50 to -70 -
    252. physiology-concerned with appetite and satiety - all -
    253. PSYCHIATRY-blackout due to alcohol intoxication-
    254. PSYCHIATRY-Post traumatic stress disorder.. -
    255. PSYCHIATRY-Paranoid schizophrenia.. -
    256. PSYCHIATRY-1)a 28 yr old female low mood, feeling dat her neighbour put camera to spy on her a)paranoid schizophrenia /b)delusion
    257. PSYCHIATRY-2)defence mechanism of not accepting- denial -
    258. PSYCHIATRY-catastrophic reaction seen in a)schizophrenia b)anxiety c)depresssion -
    259. PSYCHIATRY-4)7 yr old boy having repetitive actions a)autism b)learning disorder-
    260. PSYCHIATRY-1] Lady with paranoid delusions- delusional disorder. [ bec she has nonbizare delusions and not any other s/s of schizo]
    261. PSYCHIATRY-2] Catastrophic reaction in- anxiety neurosis?? -
    262. PSYCHIATRY-3] Mania typical sign- flight of ideas. -
    263. PSYCHIATRY-4] Post traumatic stress disorder- hist of woman with accident. -
    264. PSYCHIATRY-5] Exposure therapy is a type of- Behavioural/ cognitive therapy. -
    265. psychiatry-1)a 28 yr old female low mood, feeling dat her neighbour put camera to spy on her a)paranoid schizophrenia /b)delusion
    266. psychiatry-2)defence mechanism of not accepting- denial -
    267. psychiatry-catastrophic reaction seen in a)schizophrenia b)anxiety c)depresssion -
    268. psychiatry-4)7 yr old boy having repetitive actions a)autism b)learning disorder-
    269. psychiatry-1] Lady with paranoid delusions- delusional disorder. [ bec she has nonbizare delusions and not any other s/s of schizo]
    270. psychiatry-2] Catastrophic reaction in- anxiety neurosis?? -
    271. psychiatry-3] Mania typical sign- flight of ideas. -
    272. psychiatry-4] Post traumatic stress disorder- hist of woman with accident. -
    273. psychiatry-5] Exposure therapy is a type of- Behavioural/ cognitive therapy. -
    274. psychiatry-mania-flight of ideas -
    275. psychiatry-srilankan girl tsunami-post traumatic stess disorder -
    276. psychiatry-30)women thinks neighbour has put camera behind her head -delusion disorder -
    277. psychiatry-munchausen syn by proxy - admission of abuse by parents -
    278. psychiatry-water as biologic medium - hydrophobic reaction -
    279. RADIOLOGY-string of beads-small boel obs/chps -
    280. RADIOLOGY-consolidation in lung with clear upper line and base towards heart with silhouetting of right heart border -
    281. RADIOLOGY-string of beads on xray.. Small bowel obst. -
    282. radiology-string of beads on xray.. Small bowel obst. -
    283. radiology-Strings of beads on horizontal cxr- si obs. -
    284. radiology-obliteratn of rt. heart border by triangular opacity wid base medially- middle lobe, post basal of lower lobe, ant basal of lower lobe, all
    285. radiology-stable isotope - 018 -
    286. RADIOTHERAPY-¤ca cervix,radiation at pt a = 8000 -
    287. radiotherapy-radiosensitivity - oxygen -
    288. SPM-nalgonda technique -deflurination of water 
-
    289. SPM-¤lactose in milk- 7gm% -
    290. SPM-ot test for cl colour-yellow -
    291. SPM-soft tick-relapsing fever-
    292. SPM-Morbid obesity bmi.. -
    293. SPM-Strain used for mumps vaccine production.. -
    294. SPM-Sillvians index denotes.. -
    295. SPM-colour change in orthotouldine test if chlorine present in water.. Pink, blue -
    296. SPM-national programme for control of blindness funded by.. USAID, world bank, -
    297. spm-Best estimate of quality of protein.. Amino acid score, npu -
    298 . spm-colour change in orthotouldine test if chlorine present in water.. Pink, blue -
    299. spm-national programme for control of blindness funded by.. USAID, world bank, -
    300. spm-study of physical ,social & mental status study-anthropology,sociology -
    301. spm-2)nalgonda technique -deflurination of water -
    302. spm-25)color change in orthotoludine test in presence of chlorine - yellow -
    303. spm-33. MDG goals health - 3 of 8 -
    304. spm-pos predictive value denominator - tp+fp -
    305. spm-borrelia recurrentis – louse-
    306. spm-ERT and CPM- Netwaork analysis -
    307. spm-MDI health related goals- 3/8 -
    308. spm-sullivan's index- disability indicator -
    309. spm-PQLI a/e- life expectancy at birth -
    310. spm-study of physical, social n cultural history of man- Anthropology -
    311. spm-NLEP programme maharashtra in- Cat 2 -
    312. spm-Tetanus booster given every- 5yrs? -
    313. spm-3 fundamental of disaster managment- Disaster respone, preparedness and mitigation -
    314. spm-stillbirth criteria for international comparison- 1000gm -
    315. spm-who growth chart upper curve- 50th percentile for boys -
    316. spm-to compare variables with diffn units- coefficient of variance -
    317. spm-mumps vaccin- jeryl lynn -
    318. spm-yellow bag in bmw- human anatomical waste -
    319. spm-hot air oven- 160 deg. Cel-
    320. SURGERY-% of mortality for 1st rib#-
    321. SURGERY-¤ spigelian hernia - at arcuate line -
    322. SURGERY-¤ Delrome op - rectal prolapse-
    323. SURGERY-killian dehiscence-thyro n crico -
    324. SURGERY-adrenal mass surgically removed when it starts exceeding.. 1.5, 4, 7.5, 10 -
    325. SURGERY-charles-philips operation for- recurrent small bowel obstruction, large bowel obstruction -
    326. SURGERY-mortality for first rib # -
    327. SURGERY-mortality in fracture first rib is.. 5, 10, 30 percent -
    328. SURGERY-thoracotomy in haemothorax indicated in all except.. Initial output >1500, output 100ml/hr, cardiac tamponade-
    329. SURGERY-1st rib # mortality upto 36%-
    330. SURGERY-malignant pheochromocytoma is 'exclusively' indicated by.. Capsule and vascular invasion, nuclear polymorphism, abnormal mitoses, none.
    331. SURGERY-Best marker of pancreatic ca.. P16, CEA, -
    332. SURGERY-Cork screw esophagus.. Diffuse spasm -
    333. SURGERY-solitary rectal ulcer most common at.. Ant, post, right lateral, left lateral-
    334. SURGERY-4] Mortality in 1st rib fracture.??? -
    335. SURGERY-*carcinoma of head and neck with worst prognosis.. A] adenoid cystic B] verrucous squamus C] keratinized squamous D] lymphoepitheloid
    336. SURGERY-radical parotidectomy all are done except.. Preservation of facial nerve-
    337. SURGERY-cleft lip repaired at -0-3months-
    338. surgery-malignant pheochromocytoma is 'exclusively' indicated by.. Capsule and vascular invasion, nuclear polymorphism, abnormal mitoses, none.
    339. surgery-Best marker of pancreatic ca.. P16, CEA, -
    340. surgery-Cork screw esophagus.. Diffuse spasm -
    341. surgery-*carcinoma of head and neck with worst prognosis.. A] adenoid cystic B] verrucous squamus C] keratinized squamous D] lymphoepitheloid
    342. surgery-radical parotidectomy all are done except.. Preservation of facial nerve-
    343. surgery-cleft lip repaired at -0-3months-
    344. surgery-most common site of lymphangiosarcoma-postmastectomy irradiation-
    345. surgery-1] Amyloid dt calcitonin is seen in- medulllary thyroid cancer. -
    346. surgery-ca prostate common in .-
    347. surgery-Angiodysplasia mc site- cecum n asc. colon -
    348. surgery-definitive diagnosis of malignant pheochromocytoma is presence of metatases /mitotic figure,capsular and vascular invasion,nuclear plomorphism can b seen in benign pheochromocytoma
    349. surgery-12)spigelian hernia - at arcuate line -
    350. surgery-32. Killian's dehiscence - Thyre-crico pharyngeus -
    351. surgery-angiodyspalsia of colon caecum and asc colon -
    352. surgery-10.Mc sit for PUV ? Distl veru monta-
  6. Guest

    Guest Guest

    malignant pheochromocytoma is 'exclusively' indicated by..

    Capsule and vascular invasion
    nuclear polymorphism
    abnormal mitoses
    none ANS

    REFERENCE: HARRISON
    Malignant Pheochromocytoma

    About 5–10% of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are malignant. The diagnosis of malignant pheochromocytoma is problematic. Typical histologic criteria of cellular atypia, presence of mitoses, and invasion of vessels or adjacent tissues do not reliably identify which tumors have the capacity to metastasize. Thus, the term malignant pheochromocytoma is generally restricted to tumors with distant metastases, most commonly found in lungs, bone, or liver, suggesting a vascular pathway of spread. Because hereditary syndromes are associated with multifocal tumor sites, these features should be anticipated in patients with germ-line mutations of RET, VHL, SDHD, or SDHB. However, distant metastases also occur in these syndromes, especially carriers of SDHB mutations.


    Which of following receptor adapt rapidly and respond to Vibration

    Meissnrs
    pacinian ANS
    ruffinis
    merkel discs

    REFERNCE GUYTON

    Pacinian corpuscles lie immiediately beneath skin and respond within hundreth of seacond and particularly important in detecting vibration
    or other rapid changes in skin


    Which is earliest manifestation(and not PRESENTATION) of renal tuberculosis?

    frequency of urine
    painless haematuria
    dysuria
    ?????

    fourth option if not sterile pyuria then ans should be painless haematuria

    REFERENCE CMDT 2010


    Tuberculosis

    The classic renal manifestation of tuberculosis is the presence of microscopic pyuria with a sterile urine culture—or "sterile pyuria." More often, other bacteria are present in addition. Microscopic hematuria is often present with pyuria. Urine cultures are the gold standard for diagnosis. Three to six first morning midstream specimens should be performed to improve sensitivity. Papillary necrosis and cavitation of the renal parenchyma occur less frequently, as do ureteral strictures and calcifications. Adequate drug therapy can result in resolution of renal involvement

    EMEDICINE

    Presentation

    Renal tuberculosis may remain dormant for many years after the kidneys become seeded during the primary tuberculous infection. With reactivation, 1 or more renal abscesses are produced. Patients usually become symptomatic, with extension of the disease to the renal pelvis and ureters causing hydronephrosis. Specific symptoms may be lacking until the hydronephrotic kidney becomes secondarily infected.

    Symptoms of frequency and urgency of urination and dysuria may ensue, with development of tuberculous cystitis. However, long before patients become symptomatic, sterile pyuria, albuminuria, and hematuria are present, although cultures for pyogens demonstrate negative results. Diagnosis usually is achieved using imaging, cystoscopy, and culture of acid-fast bacilli from early morning urine specimens. Needle aspiration biopsy is a last resort when urine cultures are negative.


    Admissions for burns are indicated in all except

    inhalational burns
    chemical burns
    any burn in unmarried girl ANS
    more than 15%

    REEF Oski's essential pediatrics
  7. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Q. Adrenal mass are removed when starts exceeding
    1.5cm
    3cm
    7cm
    10cm

    ANS: 7cm

    REF: Disorders of the Human Adrenal Cortex
    edited by Christa E. Flück, Walter L. Miller
    5cm usually taken as cut off

    HARRISON

    Evaluating patients suspected of having Cushing's syndrome. *A microadenoma or macroadenoma may be visualized by pituitary magnetic resonance scanning. Risk of carcinoma in adrenal tumors 4–6 cm is 6%. Radiographic clues include tumor heterogeneity and irregular borders (see Fig. 336-8). 17-KS, 17-ketosteroids; DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone; ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone; CT, computed tomography.
  8. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Q - features of rumination disorder are all EXCEPT

    A - No nausea

    (Rumination syndrome, or Merycism is an under-diagnosed chronic eating disorder,
    characterized by effortless regurgitation of most meals following consumption. There is no
    retching, nausea, heartburn, odours, or abdominal pains associated with the regurgitation, as there is with typical vomiting. The disorder has been historically documented as affecting only
    infants, young children, and people with cognitive disabilities. . . .


    Symptoms can begin to manifest at any point from the ingestion of the meal to 120 minutes thereafter. However, the more common range is between 30 seconds to 1 hour after the completion of a meal. Symptoms tend to cease when the ruminated contents become acidic.

    Symptoms

    Abdominal pain (38.1%), lack of fecal production or constipation (21.1%), nausea (17.0%), diarrhea (8.2%), bloating (4.1%), and dental decay (3.4%) are also described as common symptoms in day-to-day life. These symptoms are not necessarily prevalent during regurgitation episodes, and can happen at any time. Weight loss is often observed (42.2%) at an average loss of 9.6 kilograms, and is more common in cases where the disorder has gone undiagnosed)

    its definitely the answer though i don't recollect the other choices
  9. Guest

    Guest Guest

    ANATOMY

    1. nucleus ambigus- 9,10,11 cn –


    2. crypt of liberkuhn-duodenum –


    3. anteriorly on greater trochanter.. Gluteus max, medius\


    4. knee joint communicates with.. Superficial infrapatellar, deep infrapatellar, prepatellar, parapatellar


    5. puborectalis

    6. Hilum of spleen


    7. Myelin in CNS is formed by
    a. Oligodendroglia---------ans
    b. Microglia
    c. Astrocytes
    d. Schwann cells


    8. all germ layers.... gastrulation....

    PHYSIOLOGY

    1. normal lower esophageal sphincter pressure

    2. k+ rmp = -90mV –

    3. laplace law= 2T/R –

    4. Chloride equilibrium equation

    5. Renal transport maximum signifies

    6. action of somatostatin.. Inhibition of both insulin and glucagons

    7. concerned with appetite and satiety – all

    8. water as biologic medium - hydrophobic reaction –

    9. Excitation and activation of Na channels occur at
    a. -50 to -70 --- ans
    b. -70 to -90
    c.
    d.

    10. Slow wave sleep in 1st third of night is
    a. NREM 3 & 4 -----------ans
    b. NREM 1 & 2
    c. REM
    d. Al

    ANESTHESIA 5

    1. hoffman deg- atracurium


    2. potentiation of sch - isoflurane(net)-

    3. Max protein binding- bupivacine. –

    4. effective and reliable technique to prevent post dural puncture headache.-????? IV fluids+NSAIDs , epidural hartman's solution

    5. Capnography useful for- confirming position of endo tube-

    6. The Colour of Nitrous Oxide cylinder is
    a. Blue ------ ans
    b. White
    c. Black
    d. Yellow

    7. ETC chain involves AE
    a. Cyt C coenzyme
    b. Cyt Q coenzym
    c. Cyt C1 Coenzym
    d. NADH dehydrogenase --------ans

    Biochemistry 6

    1. highest phospholipid content-hdl –

    2. fastest mobility-hdl

    3. biochemistry-max chl-ldl-

    4. Proof reading-dna polymerase 2?-

    5. glucose6phosphate is substrate for a/e

    6. Best estimate of quality of protein.. Amino acid score, npu –

    7. Pyrrole rings r bound by...methylene group/coordinate bonds/

    8. NO derived from –argine

    9. alkatonuria

    10. wat is not true about def of HGPRT synthase

    11. xantheuric acid in urine . –

    12. defeciency of niacin seen in-- -inh therapy /-def of pyridoxine /-def of riboflavin /-all of the above

    13. Not part of oxi phosphoryln -Nadh oxi, cyto c ect.-

    DERMATOLOGY 7

    1. LGV-c.trachomatis –
    2. Painless ulcer which bleeds to touch on genitals after contact with csw.. –
    3. Civatte bodies and max joseph space- lichen planus
    4. Auspitz sign- psoriasis. –
    5. Intraepidermal Antibodies- pemphigus vulgaris
    6. Koebner's phenomenon is not seen in ????- scleromyxoedema, molluscum -
    7. dennie morgan fold - atopic dermatitis-

    ENT 3

    1. Luc's abcess..-
    2. Which one has malignant potential.. Atrophic rhinitis, rhinoscleroma
    3. all are true about post pharyngeal abcess except... A) Presents laterally on post pharyngeal wall /B) torticolis is uncommon /C)associated with vertebral caries /D)extends in pharyngeal muscles?
    4. all muscles involved with eustachian tube except.. A] tensor veli palatini B] levator veli palatini C] tensor tympani D] palatoglossus
    5. mucocele mc site- frontal sinus –
    6. internal ligament outside the cartilage frame

    FMT 7

    1. case for negligence - within 2 yrs-
    2. salt water drowning ans??was it the hyperkalemia option
    3. best skeletal xray for 1 to 13 yrs.. Hand and carpals, elbow, shoulder-
    4. She is gratified only when you beat her.. Saddist? Etc –
    5. Le facies sympathiques- antemortem hanging
    6. Viscera for toxicology is preserved in- Sat NaCl
    7. Cuso4 is used in treating which poisoning??????
    8. Polce firing death- inquest by- magistrate. –
    9. Most potent cannabis? - majun, charas
    10.

    OBS GYNAEC 8

    1. Hydatiform mole..
    2. Still birth wt..
    3. .Paramesonephric duct in female forms all of the following except a.fallopian tube /B.UTERUS /C.Upper 3/4th vagina /D.Ovary
    4. after 2hrs of 100mg glucose GTT diabeteis defined as.. 180, 120, 155, 126 –
    5. mifepristone effective till how many days 63 days
    6. capacitation...in female genital tract-
    7. strawberry vagina -t.vaginalis –
    8. for head delivery in breech incision taken is duhrssen incision??? –
    9. long 2r among d followin bitempo,biparietal,occi-tempo,submentovertical??
    10. face 2 pubis delivery
    11. Most common variety of conjoint twins is
    a. Thoracopagus --------- ans
    b. Ischiopagus
    c. Pyopagus
    d. Cephalopagus
    12. Most common presentation of CRF in obs is
    a. PIH/ecclampsia
    b.
    c.
    d.
    13. colposcopy is indicated in all of the follwing except?
    1. visible growth on cx
    2. abnormal pap smear
    14. true about choriooca is.

    MEDICINE 16

    1. legionella DOC- AZITHROMYCIN
    2. CORECEPTOR FOR HIV ON T CELL- CXCR4
    3. MC pituitary adenoma- prolactinoma /nonfunctinal-
    4. diabetes-distal symm polyneuropathy
    5. ABO BLD GROUP- Codominant
    6. MC jt in ankylosing spondylitis- SI jt
    7. Drug of choice for mucor.. Liposomal amphoteracin
    8. Aspergillus in hypersensitivity pneumonitis is almost always
    9. which is transmitted as autosomal dominant.. MEN 2B etc –
    10. -most common in osteoarthritis knee..
    11. Most common congenital bleeding disorder.. Won willi, burnrd soulier
    12. tubercular peritonitis under.. Cat 1 –
    13. Earliest feature on treating iron deficieny is- decrease in irritability
    14. Crescents are seen in- all 3. –
    15. Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome is seen in all except-????
    16. Acquired intrinsic defect in RBC- PNH.-
    17. secondary niacin defienciency in –
    18. hyperparathyroidism a/e –
    19. B/L facial palsy- sarcoid, GBS, ??
    20. . neutropeninc fuo -<500 –
    21. thermophillic actinnomycetes in all except.. Farmers lung, millers lung, mushroom worker, baggosis

    MICROBIOLOGY 10

    1. all r true abt capsule except-gram+ -
    2. Lofflers slope- enriched medium
    3. isohaemagglutinins A and B are of –A M G
    4. pedal botryomycosis - staph aureus –
    5. not part of hacek
    6. Exotoxin produced by shigella dysenteriae
    7. Temp of hot air oven- 160. –
    8. M.Avium is- nonphotochromogen
    9. Filariform larvae is infective form for- hookworm. –
    10. In ether formal conc technique- parasites are found in which layer???? –
    11. White piedra is dt-????
    12. weil felix is useless in- q fever. –
    13. In schwan cell, m.leprae grow in- 12-14 days. –
    14. B.recurrentis is transmitted by- Lice-
    15. Repression metamoshosis? - hydatid, cysteceroid, cystecercous bovis. –
    16. Which is not transmitted thro fish- paragonimus westermani [thro crab meat] -? –
    17. Organism requrng cholesterol for grwth ?Mycoplsm
    18. active part of hydatid cyst

    OPTHALMOLOGY 9

    1. LASIK uses.. 1.excimer 2.argon 3.nd yag
    2. Cornea is cloudy in which MPS- all 3.
    3. doc for open angle glaucoma wid least systemic side effects? dipivefrine/lantanoprost/dorzolamide
    4. SAFE Strategy-trachoma
    5. sickle cell eye disease
    6. -Radius of ant. surface of cornea
    7. Cells in ant chamber of eye.. –
    8. Latent squint- heterophoria
    9. Organism of angular conjunctivits- moraxella. -
    10. AID for blindness control prog- DANIDA
    11. cornea curvature is 7.8mm/8.4mm
    12. Rosette cataract_

    ORTHOPAEDICS 6

    1. osteoclastoma true –epiphyseal
    2. codman triangle-osteosarcoma –
    3. AVN of femur head? Intracapsular
    4. CD knee position- hyperextension/ varus
    5. Ankle sprain ant talo fibular li
    6. Kwirenot used for -colles#/ -
    7. hill sac lesion- recurrent ant/postdislocn shoulder-

    PATHOLOGY 15

    1. corpora anserceae?-pineal gland
    2. Edward syn - trisomy 18
    3. phaechromocytoma-capsular & vascular invasion
    4. paneth cells –lysozme
    5. choriostoma? –
    6. all protect frm free radical injury except--catalase,superoxide dismutase,glutathione,glutamine
    7. in chediak higashi syndrome ol are seen except---neutrophilia,......-
    8. mallory hyline in alcoholic hep
    9. progression to cirrohsis on etiology
    10. Type of emphysema seen in antitrypsin deff? a.panacinar /b.centriacinar-
    11. Anti apoptosis - Bcl-2.
    12. Marker for pancreatic cancer- CA 19-9. –
    13. Orderly spread- so staging is imp in- hodgkins
    14. Heinz body is seen in- G6PD defic. –
    15. ] Schauman body in- sarcoidosis. –
    16. Peliosis hepatitis a/e? - nsaid, ocp, anabolic steroid, danazol
    17. selectin is for Rolling
    18. thrombosthenin - contractile protein –
    19. Most early and common symptom of TB kidney is
    a. Increased frequency
    b. Painless haematuria ------- ans
    c.
    d.
    20. grwth factor 1.VEGF /2.fibroblst 3.? Some alfa oxy-
    21. AFP increased tumor is
    a. Seminoma
    b. Spermatocytic seminoma
    c. Yolk sac tumour ----------- ana
    d. Choriocarcinoma
    22. Most malignant potential polyp is
    a. Hyperplastic
    b. Peutz Jegher
    c. Adenomatous ---------ans
    d. Juvenile
    23. Ulcerative colitis wall thickness
    a. > 4
    b. > 6
    c. > 7.5
    d. >9
    24. Libmann Sack endocarditis is in
    a. Carcinoid
    b. SLE ------ans
    c. Rheumatic
    d. Non
    25. interleukin 1

    PHARMACOLOGY 9

    1. glp1 agonist? -exenatide-
    2. Action of aspirn in small dose last for -? 3days / 7 days –
    3. malaria rx i preg-proguanil-
    4. Cannabinoid receptor-rimonabant-
    5. antiretroviral causing nephrolithiasis- indinavir -
    OCP,danazol,analgesic-
    6. Neroleptic malignant syndrome is caused by- all 3.-
    7. dobutamine is.
    8. drug of choice for mucor.. Voriconazole, liposomal amphoteracin –
    9. selective alpha 2 blocker.. Yuhimbin, phentolamine, prazocin –
    10. mebendazole 100mg single dose to be repeated after 14 days is indicated for all children in a family suffering from.. Entrobious, ascariasis,
    11. pyridoxine? deficiency by all except.. Hydralazine, griesofulvin, INH, pencillamine –
    12. coronary steal caused by.. Dipyridamol –
    13. true about colchicines
    14. selective b blocker
    15. Receptor for PTH on...osteocyte/osteoclast/macrophage
    16. AE are contraindicated in CRF
    a. Midazolam
    b. Pancuronium
    c.
    d.

    PHYSIATRY 8

    1. blackout due to alcohol intoxication-
    2. Post traumatic stress disorder.. –
    3. Paranoid schizophrenia.. –
    4. defence mechanism of not accepting- denial –
    5. catastrophic reaction seen in a)schizophrenia b)anxiety c)depresssion –
    6. 7 yr old boy having repetitive actions a)autism b)learning disorder-
    7. Mania typical sign- flight of ideas.
    8. Exposure therapy is a type of- Behavioural/ cognitive therapy. –

    9. munchausen syn by proxy - admission of abuse by parents –
    10. mania-flight of ideas
    11. Early morning awakening with loss of slow wave sleep
    a. Schizophrenia
    b. Major depressive disorder -----------ans
    c.
    d.

    RADIOLOGY 4

    1. string of beads-small boel obs/chps –
    2. consolidation in lung with clear upper line and base towards heart with silhouetting of right heart border –

    3. ca cervix,radiation at pt a = 8000
    4. 80 RAY
    5. radiosensitivity – oxygen
    6. stable isotope - 018 –

    PSM 18

    1. nalgonda technique -deflurination of water
    2. lactose in milk- 7gm% -
    3. ot test for cl colour-yellow
    4. soft tick-relapsing fever-
    5. Morbid obesity bmi.. –
    6. Strain used for mumps vaccine production..
    7. Sillvians index denotes..
    8. study of physical ,social & mental status study-anthropology,sociology –
    9. MDG goals health - 3 of 8 –
    10. pos predictive value denominator - tp+fp
    11. ERT and CPM- Netwaork analysis –
    12. PQLI a/e- life expectancy at birth –
    13. NLEP programme maharashtra in- Cat 2 –
    14. Tetanus booster given every- 5yrs? –
    15. fundamental of disaster managment- Disaster respone, preparedness and mitigation –
    16. stillbirth criteria for international comparison- 1000gm –
    17. who growth chart upper curve- 50th percentile for boys –
    18. to compare variables with diffn units- coefficient of variance –
    19. yellow bag in bmw- human anatomical waste –
    20. hot air oven- 160 deg. Cel-
    21. Phentolamine is used for crisis, pulmonary oedema, arrhythmia due to
    a. Russel Viper ---ans
    b. Naja Naja
    c. Submithous..
    d. Al
    22. thermophilus actinomyces does not cause miller's lung.(most probably)
    23. Malaria recent transmission in a community is
    a. Infant parasite rate -----------ans
    b. ABER
    c. API
    d.
    24. Population growth rate of 1.5 to 2% has doubling time of
    a. 28-35
    b. 35-47 ------------ans
    c. 47-70
    d. 70-135
    25. MMSE 25

    SURGERY 13

    1. of mortality for 1st rib#-
    2. spigelian hernia - at arcuate line –
    3. Delrome op - rectal prolapse-
    4. killian dehiscence-thyro n crico –
    5. adrenal mass surgically removed when it starts exceeding.. 1.5, 4, 7.5,
    6. charles-philips operation for- recurrent small bowel obstruction, large bowel obstruction –
    7. thoracotomy in haemothorax indicated in all except.. Initial output >1500, output 100ml/hr, cardiac tamponade-
    8. malignant pheochromocytoma is 'exclusively' indicated by.. Capsule and vascular invasion, nuclear polymorphism, abnormal mitoses, none.
    9. Cork screw esophagus.. Diffuse spasm –
    10. radical parotidectomy all are done except.. Preservation of facial nerve-
    11. solitary rectal ulcer most common at.. Ant, post, right lateral, left lateral-
    12. carcinoma of head and neck with worst prognosis.. A] adenoid cystic B] verrucous squamus C] keratinized squamous D] lymphoepitheloid
    13. cleft lip repaired at -0-3months-
    14. most common site of lymphangiosarcoma-postmastectomy irradiation-
    15. Amyloid dt calcitonin is seen in- medulllary thyroid cancer. –
    16. ca prostate common in .-
    17. Angiodysplasia mc site- cecum n asc. colon –
    18. Mc sit for PUV ? Distl veru monta-
    19. peyronies disease : bowing of penis on erection
    20. which is not an indication fr admission in burns ward?
    1. acid burns
    2. inhalational injury
    3. any % burns in unmarried female
    4........
    21. Which can be diagnosed on plain xray and is indicat for cholecystectomy
    a. Porcelain GB ----------ans
    b. Limey bile
    c.
    d. All of the above
    22. t/t testicular teratoma?

    PAEDIATRICS 2

    1.ORS to be given in first 4hrs to 1yr old.. –
    2.DEXTROSE
    3. Easiest and Safest way of baby care during transport
    a. KMC ---------- ans
    b. Thermocol box
    c. Baby incubator
    d.
    3. Citrate in WHO ORS is
    a. 2.9 ------ans
    b. 2.6
    c. 1.5
    d. 1.6

    4. Ruminating syndrome AE true
    a. Seen in 3 too 5 year --------ans
    b. No nausea
    c. Vomitting seen
    d.
  10. Guest

    Guest Guest

    PGMCET 2011 Final
    1. Max protein binding – Bupivacaine ( Lignocaine)
    2. NO2 cyllindr – blue
    3. Conjoint twin MC – thoracopagus
    4. AFP increased – yolk sac
    5. CRF presents in obs as- PIH
    6. TB earliest and commonest – painless haematuria
    7. Lepra bacilli grow – 13-23 days
    8. Mylin – oligodendroglia
    9. PQLI AE – life expectancy at birth
    10. Sullivan index – disability
    11. Still berth international ref – 1000 gm
    12. Thoracotomy AE – 100 mL/hr bleed
    13. Cloudy cornea – ALL
    14. Millenuem development goals – 4 out of 8
    15. Corneal curvature – 7.8 mm
    16. Edward synd – 18
    17. Child safest care – KMC
    18. Angular conjunctivitis – M lacunata
    19. Tm – Tubular secretion and reabsorption
    20. K+ potential - 90mv
    21. Cl equation - +61.5 ------
    22. Excitation of Na channel at -50 to -70 mv
    23. Phentolamin in crisis of – Russel viper
    24. Selective alpha 2 – yohimbine
    25. KP – iridocyclitis
    26. Rossett cataract – traumatic
    27. NMS – all
    28. Srilankan lady – PTSD
    29. Koebners AE – option b
    30. Pyeronie disease – fixed deformity of penis
    31. Dennie morgan – Atopic dermatitis
    32. Intraepidermal, bullae – Pemphigus vulgaris
    33. Contraindicated in CRF AE – Pancuronium
    34. Heinz bodies – G6PD
    35. Hoffman – Atracurium
    36. PDPH best Rx – Extradural blood patch
    37. HIV max in – during delivery
    38. Malaria recent – infant parasite
    39. NPCB – DANIDA
    40. Urea cycle – arginine
    41. Ank spondylitis – Sacroilliac
    42. Ulcerative colitis - > 7.5 cm
    43. Colchicine – analgesic/amtiinflammatory
    44. HGPRTase AE – PRPP
    45. Alkaptonuria – Homogentisate
    46. Free radicals AE – glutamine
    47. ETC AE – NADH dehydrogenase
    48. Xanthineurine in Urine – Niacin
    49. Secondary niacin defi – all
    50. Kinin released by least – ARB
    51. Nonselective Beta – pindolol
    52. Auspitz – psoriasis
    53. Terminal insomnia – depression
    54. Camera lady – paranoid schizo
    55. Catastrophic reaction – Anxiety
    56. Exposure – behaviour therapy
    57. Slow wave sleep – NREM 3,4
    58. Schaumann bodies – sacroid
    59. Proof reading – Exonuclease
    60. 3 germ cells separation – Gastrulation
    61. Cleft lip surgery – 3 months
    62. Spiegelian hernia – arcuate line
    63. 1.5 to 2 % - 35 to 47 years
    64. 2 variables, 2 units – coeff of variation
    65. Beed of strings – small bowel obst
    66. Charles Philips – Recurr small bowel ob
    67. Potentiate ScH – Halothane
    68. Plain x ray diagnos – Porcelain GB
    69. Libman Sac – SLE
    70. Citrate in ORS – 2.9
    71. Hypoglycemia child – 2 mL/kg 0f 25% Dext
    72. Rumination synd ae – 3 to 5 year child
    73. Strawberry – Trichomonas
    74. Paramesonephric AE – ovary
    75. Luc’s abscess – ext auditory meatus
    76. LASIK – excimer
    77. Pyridoxine inhibit by AE – hydralazine
    78. Sea fan retine – SLE
    79. CCB cannabinoid receptor – Rimonobant
    80. Anti glaucoma drug – latanoprost
    81. IUD most likely – cervical tear
    82. Formol ether techniq – sediment
    83. Loeffler – Selectiv media
    84. HACEK ae – corynebacterium
    85. Fish AE – paragonimus
    86. Most potent cannabis – majun
    87. CuSO4 – phosphorous
    88. Hepatic necrosis by – all
    89. Alpha 1 antitrypsin – panacinar
    90. Acute phase reactants AE – Amyloid A protein
    91. Latent squint – heterophoria
    92. Nt A/W eustatian tube – Palatoglossus
    93. Capnography – ETT fix
    94. Perversion – masochism
    95. Hb curve to left in AE – CO@ increase
    96. Membrane defect – PNH
    97. AD – MEN2A
    [98]. Sickle cell – multisense
    99. Pituitary adenoma – Prolactinoa
    100. Codman triangle – osteosarcoma
    101. GCT – epiphyseal
    102. Insulin des AE – LPL increase
    103. Peliosis hepatis AE – analgesic
    104. Somatostatin – somatostatin inhibit both
    105. G6P is used for AE – gluconeogeness
    106. Gastrin inhibited by – misoprostol
    107. GLP-1 – exenetide
    108. Corpora aranacea – pineal
    109. Testicular teratoma – orchidectomy + RPNDL
    110. Choriocarcinoma AE - < 20 years more
    111. MC degeneration – red
    112. Lady, vomit, pv bleed – H mole
    113. Orofacial mucormycosis – voriconazol
    114. Gancyclovir – CMV
    115. Orthotoluoine – yellow
    116. Yellow bag – anatomical waste
    117. Cervical tear – repair stitch at the angle
    118. Ischial spine – zezo station
    119. Interspinous diamter – 10 cm
    120. Ectopic preg – 2500 hcG
    121. IUGR in 2nd trimestee – HC
    122. Pregency malaria – proguanil
    123. Filariform – enterobiois
    124. Visceral cut migrans, pulmonary – strongyloids
    125. Bld grp antigen – IgG
    126. Fc bind and fix to C1 – IgA
    127. 10 mg mebendazole – Enterobious
    128. Weil felix AE – Q fever
    129. Soft tick – all
    130. B recurrentis – louse
    131. Chediak Higashi AE – neutrophilia
    132. Human antibody 0- Adamulimab
    133. HRCT – ILD
    134. Rt heart border – All of the above
    135. Radiosensitizer – O2
    136. Radioactivity by AE – X raus
    137. Stable Isotope – P32
    138. Continuous spread, staging – HL
    139. Genital ulcer – donovonpsos
    140. Aspergillosis – A fumigatus
    141. LGV – C trachomatis
    142. M avium – nonphotochromogen
    143. Naloxone blocker at – all
    144. Premalignant – rhinoscleroma
    145. Larynx intrinsic muscle – cricothyroid
    146. Nucleus ambi AE – hypoglossal
    147. MMSE – 25
    148. Retropharyngeal abscess AE – lateral swelling
    149. B/l facial palsy – All
    150. Thyroid carcinoma, amyloid – MCT
    151. LVF ecg criteria – All
    152. Worst head and neck cancer – adenoid cystic?
    153. Primary OA knee deformity – varus?
    154. TBW done AE – colles’
    155. 13 year child xray – wrist
    156. Police firing – magistrate
    157. Acute exacerbation of BA – budesonide/none?
    158. Capacitation – uterus
    159. Ankle – Ant talofib
    160. Anorectal ring by AE – Int anal sphincter
    161. Knee cavity communicats – Suprapatellar
    162. Cong dislocation knee – recurvatum
    163. Pheochroocytoma malignant – None/Capsular invasion
    164. DNA induced RNA synth – Rifampicn
    165. Foramen winslow has – bie duct, hepatic a, portal v
    166. Laplace’s law for hollo viscus – P = T/R
    167. Capillary filt rate increased by – all
    168. Most phospholipid is in – Chylomcron
    169. Most mobility – HDL
    170. Most CH – LDL
    171. Fat containing media is need for – mycoplasma
    172. LES pressure – 10-25
    173. Isotonic exercie AE – TPR
    174. Paneth cell – lysozym
    175. Crypt of lieberkuhn – duodenum
    176. Killian dehi – crico and thyro
    177. Autopsy – NSS
    178. White piedra – T Begiee
    179. Medical negligence case file – 3 yr
    180. Negligence apex body – MCI/MMC?
    181. Ca 19-9 is – Ca pancreas
    182. Prominent Y descent in AE - RVF
    183. THermophillus causes AE – Miller’s lung
    184. Interneukin not aw lymphocyt – IL-12
    185. Burn emergency criteria AE – young woman with any %
    186. Colposcopy for AE – visible growth
    187. Lymphangiosarcoma – post irradiation arm
    188. NLEP MAHARASHTRA – Cat II
    189. TB peritonitis – Cat I
    190. CHilc chylothorax – surgery
    191. Mortality in 1st rib # - 30%^
    192. Mifepristone – 63 days
    193. Spleniculi – hilum of spleen
    194. P selectin – rolling
    195. Antiapoptotic – bcl02
    196. Idiopathic nephritic synd ae – mesangiocappillary
    197. Erythromycin act – translocation
    198 . Ototoxic – 4000 to5000
    199. Positive predictive valur – FP+TP
    200. HIV receptor for macrophage – CCR5
    201. Monocyte life – 3 days
    202. PTH receptor – osteoclas
    203. Face to pubis compression- suboccipitobregmatic
    204. Heparin releasef – basophil
    205. Pyrrol – disulfide
    206. Longest diameter – suboccipito..
    207. Cortisone – RBC increase
    208. Hill Sac – ant dislocation
    209. Exotoxin – S sonnei
    210. Mad cow disease – prion
    211. Blood grp – codominant
    212. Radical parotidectomy AE – masseter remove
    213. Cong cataract rx – 6 mth
    214. MC cong disease – vWD
    215. NA symport for – glucose
    216. AE enzyme inducer – valproat
    217. Nephrolithiasis – Indinavir
    218. SRUS – Anterior
    219. 1st change on iron rx – decrease irritability
    220. Delorme – prolapse
    221. Angiodysplasia – caecum, ascending colon
    222. Pedal bottyomyco – Staph aureus
    223. Ca cervix total – 8000
    224. Ca cervix pt B – 5000
    225. Milk – 7 gm% lactos
    226. Greater trochanter anterior – Glut max?
    227. Receptors for rapid touch, vibration – pacinnian
    228. Defence mechanism – dissociation
    229. Premenopausal women breast – 7 to 10 days after
    230. 1st day of fertile period – 18 days minus shortest cycle
    231. mucocoele – frontal sinus
    232. Le facie sympathiq – AM hanging
    233. Morbid obesity – BMI> 40
    234. ORS in 1 year old 0- 400 to 600
    235. Diff betw Staph and Micrococci – Catalse/Hugh Eligsson
    236. Mumps vaccine – Jerryl lynch
    237. Legionella – Azithro
    238. TT booster in ---10 yrs
    239. Sabin vaccine AE –
    240. Bacterial cell wall AE – stain by Gm
    241. SAFE – trachoma
    242. Na;gonad – defluorination
    243. EEG in absence – 3 Hz spike
    244. Dm neuropathy – distal symm neuro
    245. Coronary steel – dipyridamole
    246. Chollerrhiec enteropathy AE – fecal fat is normal/zero
    247. 2 hr GTT for diabetes – 140
    248. Condyloma accumitat – HPV
    249. AMI bolus dose is given with – all
    250. Dobutamine act on – alpha and beta
    251. MI gene angiogenesis – VEGF
    252. Blue sclera – OI
    253. AE seen in HSP – GI haemorrhag
    254. Linear IgA in mesangium – HSP
    255. Ectopic tissue but normal – choristoma
    256. Regressive metamorphosis - ???
    257. Hot air oven – 160 degree
    258. Disaster cycle AE – disaster awakening
    259. Diff bet infection and max infectivity – generation time
    260. Repolarization start – subendocardial
    261. Posterior urethral valve – distal to veru
    262. Mallory hyaline – alcoholic liver
    263. WHO growth chart upper line – 50th percentile male
    264. Oxygen debt – all
    265. Affect foof intake/satiety – all
    266. Vd < 5 lit. drug in – vascular compartment
    267. Mania – flight of ideas
    268. AE branch of post cord – lower suprascapular ( not sure if this que was there)
    269. Child with reduced interaction – aautism
    270. Child – Pneumonia
    271. Fetal tachycard – 160
    272. Entocapone – COMT inhibit
    273. Neutropenic PUO – 500
    274. Juvenile offender – 16
    275. Head after breech – Duheressen
    276. Ormond – Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrio.. ( again not sur)
    277. Adrenalectomy at – 4 cm mass
    278. AE open in IVC – Lt testicular V
    279. Blackouts – Alcohol Intoxi
    280. Living part of hydatid – endocyst
    281. Human visible spectrum – 400 to 700
    282. Aspirin action – 7 days
    283. Branch dealing with – social anthropology
    284. Lady containg abortus – missed abortion
    285. Water is good for reaction AE – has hydrophobic
    286. Chr hepatitis progression – etiology
    287. Hyperk – Type IV
    288. Cork screw – Diffuse oeso spasm
    289. Thromboshtnin – protein promoting thrombus
    290. Munchaussen by proxy AE – admission of abuse
    291. PERT and CPM – network
    292. Max joseph space – Lichen planus
    293. Best for protein quality – BV
    294. Not in salt water drown – Hypovolumia
    295. AVN MC in – Intracapsular
    296. Sequestrum is – A piece of dead bone surrounded by infected tissu
    297. 3 communities controlled trial on health edu - Stanford
  11. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Equilibrium potentials

    For most animal cells potassium ions (K+) are the most important for the resting potential[1]. Due to the active transport of potassium ions, the concentration of potassium is higher inside cells than outside. Most cells have potassium-selective ion channel proteins that remain open all the time. There will be net movement of positively-charged potassium ions through these potassium channels with a resulting accumulation of excess negative charge inside of the cell. The outward movement of positively-charged potassium ions is due to random molecular motion (diffusion) and continues until enough excess negative charge accumulates inside the cell to form a membrane potential which can balance the difference in concentration of potassium between inside and outside the cell. "Balance" means that the electrical force (potential) that results from the build-up of ionic charge, and which impedes outward diffusion, increases until it is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the tendency for outward diffusive movement of potassium. This balance point is an equilibrium potential as the net transmembrane flux (or current) of K+ is zero. The equilibrium potential for a given ion depends only upon the concentrations on either side of the membrane and the temperature. It can be calculated using the Nernst equation:


    where
    Eeq,K+ is the equilibrium potential for potassium, measured in volts
    R is the universal gas constant, equal to 8.314 joules·K-1·mol-1
    T is the absolute temperature, measured in kelvins (= K = degrees Celsius + 273.15)
    z is the number of elementary charges of the ion in question involved in the reaction
    F is the Faraday constant, equal to 96,485 coulombs·mol-1 or J·V-1·mol-1
    [K+]o is the extracellular concentration of potassium, measured in mol·m-3 or mmol·l-1
    [K+]i is likewise the intracellular concentration of potassium

    Potassium equilibrium potentials of around -80 millivolts (inside negative) are common. Differences are observed in different species, different tissues within the same animal, and the same tissues under different environmental conditions. Applying the Nernst Equation above, one may account for these differences by changes in relative K+ concentration or differences in temperature.

    For common usage the Nernst equation is often given in a simplified form by assuming typical human body temperature (37 C), reducing the constants and switching to Log base 10. (The units used for concentration are unimportant as they will cancel out into a ratio). For Potassium at normal body temperature one may calculate the equilibrium potential in millivolts as:


    Likewise the equilibrium potential for sodium (Na+) at normal human body temperature is calculated using the same simplified constant. You can calculate E assuming the an outside concentration,[K+]o, of 10mM and an inside concentration, [K+]i, of 100mM. For chloride ions (Cl-) the sign of the constant must be reversed (-61.54 mV). If calculating the equilibrium potential for calcium (Ca2+) the 2+ charge halves the simplified constant to 30.77 mV. If working at room temperature, about 21 C, the calculated constants are approximately 58 mV for K+ and Na+, - 58 mV for Cl- and 29 mV for Ca2+. At physiological temperature, about 29.5 C, and physiological concentrations (which vary for each ion), the calculated potentials are approximately 67 mV for Na+, -90mV for K+, -86 mV for Cl- and 123 mV for Ca2+.

    so..ans maybe Equilibrium potential for chloride EMF= -61.5log {conc. outside the cell/ conc. inside the cell}
  12. Guest

    Guest Guest

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