mammograms

Discussion in 'MRCS Forum' started by Lona., Jan 30, 2008.

  1. Lona.

    Lona. Guest

    Q. A 57-year-old woman discovers a breast mass which is biopsied and found to be carcinoma. After her treatment, she assembles her family and attempts to encourage them to obtain regular examinations and mammograms. Regarding the risk of breast cancer, which of the following statements is true?

    a- breast cancer occurs more commonly among women of the lower social classes
    b- A history of breast cancer in a first-degree family relative is associated with a fourfold increase in risk
    c- Women with a first birth after age 30 years have approximately twice the risk of those with a first birth before age 18
    d- Cigarette smoking increases the risk of breast cancer
    e- Hair dyes have been shown to increase the risk of breast cancer
  2. Lona.

    Lona. Guest

    Answer: c. (Harris, pp 159-167) Risk factors for breast cancer include family history, nulliparity, previous breast cancer, early menarche, and late menopause. A late age at first birth (after age 30) doubles the risk of breast cancer compared with early parity (age 18 or earlier). Having one first-degree relative (mother, sister, or daughter) with breast cancer also doubles the risk. Women of the upper social classes, as measured by either education or income, have been found to have the highest incidence of breast cancer. Neither cigarette smoking nor the use of hair dye has been correlated with breast cancer.

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