MARCH 1997 – PAPER-1

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    MARCH 1997 – PAPER-1

    Posted: Mon Mar 14, 2005 9:29 pm Post subject: RCOG Qs

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    MARCH 1997 – PAPER-1

    1.Chromaffin cells
    a- are innervated by preganglinonic sympathetic fibres
    b-are present in adrenal cortex
    c-are derived from neuroectoderm
    d-can decarboxylate aminoacids
    e-are present in celiac ganglion


    2-The internal pudendal artery
    a-leaves the pelvis through lesser sciatic foramen
    b-lies on the medial wall of ischiorectal fossa
    c-has a branch which pierces the perineal memberane
    d-gives rise to middle rectal artery
    e-suppliesthe upper vagina

    3-The pelvic splanchnic nerves
    a- are derived from posterior ramii of sacral spinal nerves.
    b-supply afferent fibres
    c-unite with branches of sympathetic pelvic plexus
    d- supply the ascending colon with motor fibres
    e-supply the uterus with parasympathetic fibres.

    4-In the anterior abdominal wall
    a-rectus muscle is intersected transversely by three bands
    b-posterior rectus sheath below arcuate line consists of transversalis fascia only
    c-above the costal margin posterior rectus sheath is deficient
    d-superior epigastric artery arises from internal thoracic artery
    e-inferior epigastric artery arises from femoral artery

    5-The rectum
    a- is supplied in part by inferior rectal artery
    b-is innervated by inferior rectal nerve
    c-is lined by stratified squamous epithelium
    d-has its lymphatic drainage to superficial inguinal lymph nodes
    e-possess a complete outer layer of longitudinal muscle

    6-The obturator nerve
    a-emerges from the lateral border of psoas major
    b-is formed from the posterior divisions of 2,3,4th lumbar nerves
    c-passes lateral to internal iliac vessels
    d-lies below the obturator artery in obturator foramen
    e-is separated from the normally sited ovary only by pelvic peritoneum

    7-In the cerebral cortex
    a-the left visual field is represented in the right cerebral cortex
    b-the area directly concerned with the movements of hands and face is larger than that concerned with movements of legs and trunk
    c-in most people,left side is more concerned with speech than the right side
    d-pyramidal cells are present
    e-the blood supply is wholly from branches of internal carotid arteries

    8-The cervix
    a-consists chiefly of smooth muscle
    b-has a supravaginal part which is related anteriorly to ureter
    c-has a supravaginal part which is covererd with peritoneum anteriorly
    d-has pain sensation carried by pelvic splanchnic nerves
    e-is lined in its vaginal part by keratinised epithelium

    9-The right ureter lies in close relationship to the
    a-bifurcation of right common iliac artery
    b-infundibulopelvic ligament
    c-uterine artery
    d-inferior mesenteric artery
    e-parietal attachment of sigmoid mesocolon

    10-The pelvic surface of the sacrum
    a-gives origin to piriformis muscle
    b-gives origin to levator ani muscle
    c-is broader in male than in female
    d-transmits dorsal ramii of sacral nerves
    e-is in contact with anal canal

    11-In the fetal circulation
    a-ductus venosus delivers blood directly into sup. vena cava
    b-umbilical artery returns blood from the placenta
    c-ducuts arteriosus carries blood to lungs
    d-blood returning from lungs is 90% saturated with oxygen
    e-blood from the inferior vena cava is largely directed through the foramen ovale

    12-The ducuts venosus
    a-is part of embryonic heart
    b-is a shunt preventing blood from passing to fetal lungs
    c-gives rise to ligamentum teres
    d-carried blood with a higher PO2 than umbilical arterial blood
    e-is derived from anterior cardinal vein

    13-The following structures take part in formation of anterior fontanelle in fetal skull
    a-lambdoidal suture
    b-occipital suture
    c-sagittal suture
    d-glabella
    e-frontal suture

    14-Concerning the embryology of urinary tract
    a-detrusor has a mesodermal origin
    b-urogenital sinus is derived from cloaca
    c-allantois gives origin to lateral umbilical ligament
    d-metanephric ducts arise from mesonephric ducts
    e-mesonephric duct remnants form the epoophoron in the adult female

    15-The following tissues are paired with appropriate primary germ cell layer of origin
    a-mammary duct epithelium- ectoderm
    b-epithelium of tongue –mesoderm
    c-pineal gland-ectoderm
    d-ovarian stroma-mesoderm
    e-endometrium-mesoderm

    16-Adrenocorticotrophic hormone
    a-production is governed by hypothalamus
    b-production is maximal about midnight
    c-is present in placenta
    d-is increased in maternal plasma in pregnancy
    e-secretion is inhibited by glucocorticoids

    17-After the menopause
    a-the plasma concentration of FSH increases
    b-plasma progesterone concentration increases
    c-oestrone is the estrogen found in highest concentration in plasma
    d-plasma testosterone concentration doubles
    e-plasma prolactin concentration increases

    18-Successful lactation is
    a-maintained by estrogens
    b-maintained by progesterones
    c-initiated by prolactin surge
    d-maintained by human placental lactogen
    e-inhibited by dopamine

    19-In a woman of reproductive age,serum concentrations of following hormones exhibit a recognised pattern of diurnal variation
    a-progesterone
    b-melatonin
    c-cortisol
    d-oestrone
    e-FSH

    20-Serum concentration of following increase during pregnancy
    a-sex hormone binding globulin
    b-prolactin
    c-total thyroxine
    d-FSH
    e-17 alpha hydroxy progesterone

    21-LH
    a-is required for normal corpus luteum survival
    b-has a half life in circulation of 30 hrs.
    c-is released in pulses
    d-in the male stimulates testosterone production
    e-plasma concentration is increased in post menopausal women


    22-The release of catecholamine from the adrenal medulla increases
    a-during sleep in healthy individuals
    b-when the nerves to adrenal gland are stimulated
    c-following an increase in blood sugar
    d-immediately following a myocardial infarction
    e-during acute haemorrhage


    23-Prolactin
    a-release is stimulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone
    b-plasma levels are raised in 1st trimester of pregnancy
    c-released is increased by suckling
    d-may be produced by decidua
    e-release is inhibited by metoclopramide

    24-HCG
    a-is not produced by deciduas
    b-is biochemically indistinguishable from LH
    c-is active if given to non pregnant women
    d-production rises steadily throughout pregnancy
    e-has no influence upon the production of estrogens by placenta

    25-Huma placental lactogen
    a-concentration in maternal plasma is directly proportional to functional mass of placenta
    b-has a half life in blood of less than 1 hour
    c-is steroid hormone
    d-increases the mobilisation of maternal free fatty acids
    e-reaches the same concentration in fetal blood as in maternal blood at term


    26-The secretion of growth hormone
    a-occurs in hypothalamus
    b-ceases when the adult state is reached
    c-is decreased during stress
    d-is increased during fasting
    e-is increased with exercise

    27-Oxytocin
    a-is released episodically
    b-causes decreased renal tubular absorption of water
    c-is responsible for milk ejection
    d-reduces intestinal peristalsis
    e-inhibits prolactin secretion

    28-Hirsuitism in woman is characterstically associated with
    a-testicular feminisation
    b-turner syndrome
    c-polycystic ovarian syndrome
    d-arrhenoblastoma
    e-hypopituitarism

    29-Parathyroid hormone
    a-decreases the renal excretion of phosphate
    b-increases calcium resorption from bone
    c-depresses pituitary activity
    d-concentration in blood are raised when calcium level falls
    e-increases renal tubular absorption of calcium

    30-Aldosterone
    a-reduces sodium reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule
    b-reduces sodium reabsorptionin descending loop of henle
    c-increases sodium reabsorption in distal convoluted tubule
    d-increases potassium loss from the tubule
    e-increases sodium absorption in the collecting tubule

    31-17B estradiol
    a-is synthesised by aromatisation of testosterone
    b-vasodilates the uterine artery
    c-suppresses the uterine activity by upregulating the oxytocin receptor
    d-promotes secondary sexual hair growth in females
    e-is thrombogenic

    32-The germination of tetanus spores in wound is inhibited by
    a-tissue trauma
    b-oxygen
    c-injection of antitoxin
    d-injection of toxoid
    e-removal of devitalised tissue


    33-Proteolytic organisms are secreted by following organisms
    a-Neisseria Meningitidis
    b-Salmonella typhi
    c-Streptococcus pyogenes
    d-Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    e-Clostridium Perfringens( Welchii)

    34-CMV
    a-is an adenovirus
    b-may be cultured readily in cell free media
    c-is a cause of cerebral calcification
    d-causes haemolytic anaemia in neonate
    e-may be transmitted in saliva

    35-Treponema pallidum immobilisation test is positive in
    a-yaws
    b-infectious mononucleosis
    c-malaria
    d-chanchroid
    e-lyme disease( Borreliosis)


    36-Leptospirosis
    a-is caused by gram negative coccobacillus
    b-is frequently transmitted to man by inanimate objects
    c-can result in severe form of jaundice
    d-is a STD
    e-is transmitted in pasteurised cow’s milk

    37-Mycobacteria
    a-are non sporing
    b-are all acid fast in their staining reaction
    c-are facultative anaerobes
    d-are responsible for leprosy
    e-are all pathogenic in humans

    38-Following disorders and organisms are correctly paired
    a-Opthalmia neonatrum-Chlamydia trachomatis
    b-Chancroid haemophillus ducreyii
    c-Sleeping sickness- Leishmaina Donovani
    d-Ringworm-Trichinella spirallis
    e-non specific urethritis – toxoplasma gondii


    39-Following organisms are gram positive
    a-Mycoplasma hominis
    b-Staphylococcus Aureus
    c-Clostridium Perfringens
    d-Klebsiella Pneumoniae
    e-Bacteroides Fragilis

    40-Concerning hepatitis B virus infection
    a-Vertical transmission does not occur
    b-Sexual transmission occurs
    c-Core antigenaemia indicates high infectivity
    d-Hepatocellular carcinoma is a recognised complication
    e-An effective vaccine is available

    41-Following antibiotcs are usually effective against Pseudomona Aeuroginosa
    a-Cephradine
    b-Amoxycillin
    c-carbenicillin
    d-gentamicin
    e-trimethoprim

    42-Recognised unwanted effects of prostaglandin E include
    a-water retention
    b-increased uterine contractility
    c-increased small bowel peristalsis
    d-flushing of skin
    e-vomiting


    43-Following substances are sympathomimetic amines
    a-Amphetamine
    b-ephedrine
    c-histamine
    d-isoprenaline
    e-chlorpromazine

    44-Subcutaneous atropine injection characteristically produces
    a-increase in heart rare
    b-increase in salivation
    c-constriction of pupil
    d-hypnotic effect
    e-decreased bronchiolar secretion

    45-Follwing drugs have anticholinergic effects
    a-propatheline bromide
    b-carbachol
    c-distigmine bromide
    d-benzhexol
    e-atropine


    46-Treatment with morphine
    a-causes respiratory depression
    b-increases gastric motility
    c-causes side effects which may be reversed by naloxone
    d-increaes secretion of antidiuretic hormone
    e-causes papillary dilatation

    47-Hypokalaemia may be caused by
    a-bendrofluazide
    b-digoxin
    c-spironolactone
    d-carbenoxolone
    e-amiloride

    48-Concerning heparins
    a-heparin is synthesised in lungs
    b-antithrombin III is necessary for standard heparins to exert their anticoagulant effect
    c-factor X is inhibited by low molecular weight heparins
    d-Low mol wt. heparins have a longer half life than standard heparins
    e-penicillins potentiate the action of low mol. wt. heparins
    49-The following statistical statements are correct-
    a-in the normal distribution,the value of mode is 1.73 times the median
    b-in a distribution skew to the right,the mean lies to the left of median
    c-in the series- 2;7;5;2;3;2;5;8, the mode is 2
    d-student’s ‘t’ test is designed to correct for skew distribution
    e-the chi squared testmay be used when data are not normally distributed




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    noreen
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    Posted: Fri Mar 18, 2005 1:44 pm Post subject: re rcog qs

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    could u plz add the paper 2 qs also
    Thanks




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    Posted: Fri Mar 18, 2005 11:39 pm Post subject:

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    March 1997 Paper-2

    1.Following changes in ventilation occur during pregnancy
    a-decrease in respiratory rate
    b-decrease in pCO2
    c-decrease in residual volume
    d-derease in tidal volume
    e-an increase in PCO2

    2-Following are req. for hemostatic clot formation
    a-conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
    b-platelete phospholipids
    c-active conversion of plasminogen to plasmin
    d-fibrin degradation products
    e-antithrombin

    3-Myometrial contractility
    a-is calcium dependent
    b-is associated with phosphorylation of myosin light chain
    c-is independent of cAMP
    d-is mediated by somatic nervs
    e-dep. on myometrial gap junctions

    4-Following values fall within normal range for adult female bladder
    a-residual urine-100 ml.
    b-voiding vol.-250 ml.
    c-bladder capacity- 900 ml
    d-intravescical pr. rise of less than 10 cm of water during early filling
    e- max. urine flow rate of 60 ml/sec.


    5-Parenchymal cells of liver
    a-can convert fructose to glucose
    b-synthesise urea
    c-conjugate bilirubin
    d-excrete bromsulphthalein
    e-synthesise cholesterol

    6-In testis
    a-maturation from spermatogonia to spermatozoa takes about 29 days
    b-sertoli cells can mature into spermatids
    c-leydig cells produce inghibin
    d-LH inihibits secretion of testosterone
    e-large quanities of fructose are present in seminal fluid

    7-Functions of spleen in a healthy adult includes-
    a-erythropoesis
    b-destruction of erythrocytes
    c-formation of B lymphocytes
    d-phagocytosis of bacteria
    e-production of erythropoietin

    8-Neonatal jaundice may be caused by
    a-congenital hypothyroidism
    b-phenylketonuria
    c-galactosaemia
    d-fructosaemia
    e-long acting sulphonamides

    9-Concerning vagus nerves
    a-when stimulated it has little direct effect on the strength of ventricular contraction
    b-it has afferent nerve fibres
    c-stimulation increases heart rate
    d-it innervates jejunum
    e-it is involved in Hering Breuer relex


    10-In normal subjects following increase ventilation
    a-a change in arterial PO2 from 13.1 KPa ( 98 mm Hg) to 8 KPa ( 60 mm hg)
    b-a change in arterial pH from 7.36 to 7.48
    c-a change in arterial PCO2 from 5.9 KPa ( 44 mmm Hg) to 8 KPa ( 60 mm Hg)
    d- administration of doxapram
    e-pregnancy

    11-Following statements relate to plasma proteins
    a-They create an oncotic pressure of 3.3 KPa ( 25 mm Hg) across the capillary walls
    b-they form a major part of cationic pool
    c-All are manufactured in liver
    d-Albumin hs a lower molecular weight than fibrinogen
    e-Fibrinogen is freely filtered at the glomerulus

    12-In a healthy young non pregnant women at rest
    a-80% of body wt. is water
    b-75% of extracellular fluid is outside the blood vessel
    c-plasma volume is about 5 litres
    d-pH of plasma is about 7.25
    e-plasma osmolality is about 400 mosmol/litre

    13-In normal adult circulation
    a-pressure in left ventricle during diastole is twice the atmospheric pressure
    b-aortic blood pressure during diastole is about 2/3 of that during systole
    c-resistance in peripheral blood vessels is inversely proportional to fourth power of vessel radius
    d-arterioles are not subject to sympathetic stimulation except during exercise
    e-increaed carotid sinus baroreceptor activity increase the heart rate

    14-Heart rare typically increase in response to
    a-pain
    b-hypoxia
    c-ventilatory expiration
    d-increased intracranial pressure
    e-decreaesd barorecepror activity


    15-In a healthy woman renin
    a-is secreted only by kidney
    b-plasma concentration is greater in pregnant than in non pregnant state
    c-plasma conc. is increased by diuretic therapy
    d-converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin II
    e-activity is blocked by captopril

    16-Concerning human parturition
    a-no. of oxytocin receptors in myometrium increases before the onset of labour
    b-in the primigravida , cervical dilatation usually precedes cervical effacement
    c-the plasma oxytocin conc. increases at the onset of labour
    d-oxytocin stimulates the synthesis of prostaglandins within uterus
    e-contraction of maternal abd. muscles is essential for spontaneous vaginal delivery

    17-Arterial plasma at 13 weeks gestation in normal pregnant woman
    a-has a freezing point of 0.5 degree centigrade
    b-has an osmolality of 190 mosmol/litre
    c-has a PCO2 of 4KPa ( 30 mm Hg)
    d-has a creatinine conc. of 200 micromol/litre ( 2.26 mg/ml)
    e-has a sodium concentration of 140 mmol/litre( 140 meq/litre)

    18-Recognised effects of pregnancy include
    a-transient impairment of glcose tolerance
    b-raised GFR
    c-raised plasma conc of free tyrosine
    d-reduced plasma conc of alkaline phosphatase
    e-increased secretion of prolactin


    19-In the small intestine ,following substances are absorbed by active processes
    a-water
    b-sodium
    c-vit K
    d-amino acids
    e-chloride

    20-Collagen-
    a-has a double helical structure
    b-shows a regular banding patern on electron microscopy
    c- is not formed normally in the absence of ascorbic acid
    d-is not found in basement memberanes
    e-synthesis is inhibited by glucocorticoids

    21-White cell migration from blood vessels in areas of inflammation involves
    a-cell migration occurring between endothelial cells
    b-passive loss of fluid blood elements
    c-cell migration independent of endothelial cell motion
    d-initial migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophills
    e-more polymorphs than monocytes after 2 days

    22-Carcinoma in situ in epithelium ( intraepithelial neolasia) is characterise by
    a-increased miotic activity
    b-loss of polarity
    c-increased adhesiveness to underlying stroma
    d-pyknosis
    e-increased thickness of epithelium

    23-Following provide conclusive evidence of pregnancy in uterine curettings
    a-decidua compacta
    b-Arias stella changes in endometrial glands
    c-spiral arterioles
    d-plasma cell infiltration
    e-chorionic vili

    24-In acute tubular necrosis of kidney
    a-lesion is reversible
    b-kidney is small
    c-25% of deaths occur in diuretic phase
    d-DCT are mainly affected in mercury poisoning
    e-proteinaceous casts are found in collecting ducts

    25-Complications of myocardial infarction include
    a-fibous pericrditis
    b-aortic aneurysm
    c-ventricular mural thrombi
    d-coronary atherosclerosis
    e-ventricular aneurysm

    26-In the pathogenesis of thrombosis
    a-prostacyclin induces platelet aggregation
    b-plateletes synthesis thromboxane A2
    c-thromboxane A2 induces vasoconstriction
    d-contact with subendothelial collagen causes platelete aggregation
    e-thrombin inhibits platelete aggregation


    27-Characteristics of addisonian pernicious anaemia include
    a-leucocytosis
    b-inheritance as autosomal dominant trait
    c-a raised mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration
    d- increased incidence of gastric neoplasia
    e-an increased incidence of primary hypothyroidism

    28-Immunodeficiency states may be associated with
    a-viral infection of T lymphocyte
    b-B cell lymphomas
    c-glucocoticoid administration
    d-haemolytic disease of the new born
    e-untreated hodgkin’s lymphoma

    29 –B lymphocytes
    a-produce TNF
    b-produce complement
    c-produce antibodies
    d-contribute to delayed hypersensitivity
    e-produce IgE

    30-Antibodies
    a-are proteins
    b-are formed in the fetus before 12 wks of intrauterine life
    c-have an av. mol. wt. of around 10,000 daltons
    d-of the rhesus type are genetically transmitted
    e- are produced by ribosomes of plasma cells


    31-Type III ( immune complex related) hypersensitivity is characterised by
    a-damage localised to a particular cell type
    b-decreased vascular permeability
    c-microthrombus formation
    d-complement activation
    e-mediation by Ig E antibodies

    32-Following disorders have an X linked pattern of inheritance
    a-G6PD def.
    b--klienfelter syndrome
    c-adrenogenital syndrome
    d-hemophilia B
    e-familial hypercholesterolaemia

    33-In the female
    a-only the X chromosome of maternal origin is active
    b-barr body is sex chromatin
    c-80% of polymorphonuclear leukocytes have a ‘drumstick’ appearance of chromatin
    d-an extra X chromosome is associated with 2 barr bodies
    e- an extra X chromosome is associated with below average intelligence

    34-In DNA
    a-a codon is a sequence of 3 bases
    b-all codons have identified function
    c-there’s a greater variety of aminoacids than there are diff. codons
    d-replication can be initiated at several different points along a chromosome
    e-complementary pairing precedes mRNA synthesis

    35-The following genetic disorders are inherited as autosomal recessives
    a-Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    b-Huntington’s chorea
    c-Tay sachs disease
    d-retinoblastoma
    e-achondroplasia

    36-In experimental conditions, ultrasound may produce biological effects on tissues by following means
    a-accleration of cell div.
    b-heat generation
    c-cavitation
    d-duplication of chromosome numbers
    e-microstreaming

    37-Concerning radiation physics
    a-an electron has a greater mass than a proton
    b-a positron has a same charge as an electron
    c-a proton has a positive charge
    d-a neutron has almost the same mass as proton
    e-the hydrogen nucleus is a neutron

    38-Conversion of glucose to lactic acid
    a-occurs in a single enzymatic reaction
    b-is the only pathway for synthesis of ATP in red blood cells
    c-is a reversible process in skeletal muscle
    d-is inhibited by high cellular concentrations of ATP
    e-occurs in skeletal muscle when availability of oxygen is limited

    39 Uric acid
    a-is formed from breakdown of purines
    b-is raised in serum during normal pregnancy
    c-is increasedin serum during thiazide therapy
    d-is reabsorbed in proximal renal tubule
    e-is excreted unchanged in urine

    40-Adenine
    a-is a pyrimidine base
    b-forms base pairs with thymine in RNA
    c-is synthesised attached to ribose phosphate
    d-can be converted directly to a nucleotide by the action of phosphoribosyl transferase enzymes
    e-is degraded by a pathway which involves the enzyme xanthine oxidase

    41-Bilirubin
    a-is a steroid
    b-is bound to albumin in ciculation
    c-conjugates iron
    d-can be converted directly to glycerine
    e-facilitates absorption of fat from the gut

    42-Combined salt and water depletionis associated with
    a-high conc. of sodium in urine
    b-high urine specific gravity
    c-pre renal uremia
    d-fall in central venous pressure
    e-high blood urea concentration

    43-Normal human seminal fluid
    a-coagulates in vitro
    b-contains sucrose
    c-has a pH of 5
    d-may contain 15% morphologically abnormal spermatozoa
    e-is predominantly produced within testis

    44-Ethanol
    a-consumed in excess stimulates fatty acid oxidation
    b-suppresses arginine vasopressin secretion
    c-promotes gluconeogenesis
    d-is oxidised to acetaldehyde
    e-is metabolised predominantly by liver

    45-Glucocorticoids
    a-promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis
    b-suppreses uptake of glucose by muscles
    c-promote protein breakdown
    d-promote fat breakdown
    e-increase glycolysis in adipose tissue

    46-Cholesterol
    a-is an essential dietary requirement
    b-is present in plasma memberane of all human cells
    c-can not be synthesised in liver
    d-is transported in circulation bound to albumin
    e-is a precursor for synthesis of steroid hormone

    47-Haemoglobin
    a-has 4 porphyrin rings
    b-can carry 4 mol. of oxygen
    c-binds carbon monoxide more readily than oxygen
    d-is synthesised in mature erythrocytes
    e-contains 2 beta chains

    48-HbF
    a-is not formed before 20 wks of intrauterine life
    b-is more resistant than adult haemoglobin to denaturation by alkali
    c-in the fetus constitutes 80-90% of Hb at term
    d-represents less than 5% of total Hb 8 weeks after birth
    e-is increased in adult patients with beta thallasaemia

    49-Fibrinogen
    a-levels are usually low during pregnancy
    b-is a substrate for thrombin
    c-at elevated plasma levels causes a reduction in ESR
    d-is synthesised in liver
    e-is a Bence Jones’ protein

    ---------------------------------***------------------------------------




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    Posted: Sun Mar 20, 2005 8:48 am Post subject: Hi

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    Guest[

    Thanks for the papers

    you did a great job
    noreen




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    Shipra
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    Posted: Thu Mar 24, 2005 4:53 am Post subject:

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    SEPT. 1997 PAPER-1

    1-The obturator artery
    a-branches from post. trunk of the internal iliac artery
    b-passes through greater sciatic foramen
    c-is crossed by ureter
    d-supplies the hip joint
    e-may be replaced by a branch of superior epigastric artery


    2-The spleen
    a-has a notched posterior boarder
    b-lies infront of costo-diaphragmatic recess
    c-is in contact with the body of the pancreas
    d-lies under the cover of the 9th to 11th ribs
    e-is innervated from renal plexus


    3-The following muscles are inserted into perineal body
    a-bulbospongiosus
    b-ischiocavernosus
    c-obturator internus
    d-sphincter ani externus
    e-transverse perinei superficialis


    4-The inferior vena cava
    a-is formed at the level of 5th lumbar vertebra
    b-commences post to rt. ext iliac artery
    c-receives the left ovarian vein
    d-receives the right renal vein
    e-pierces the central tendon of diaphragm


    5-The adult female urethra
    a-is 7 cm in length
    b-is lined with columnar epithelium in its proximal half
    c-has mucus glands n its distal third
    d-passes through the perineal memberane
    e-is surrounded by smooth muscle in its middle third


    6-In the normal human pelvis
    a-the promontory of sacrum is in upper anterior border of the first sacral vertebra
    b-anterior surface of the sacrum has five paired foramina
    c-the joint between 2 pubic bones is a synovial joint
    d-acetabular fossa is wholly formed from parts of the pubic and ischial bones
    e-the tranverse diameter of the brim is greater than anteroposterior diameter


    7-The left ureter in female
    a-dev from an outgrowth of paramesonephric duct
    b-when radiologically visualised runs along the tips of transverse process of lumbar vertebra
    c-is narrowed in calibre as it crosses the pelvic brim
    d-runs medial to ovary
    e-lies anterior to vagina as it enters the trigone of bladder


    8-Concerning the abdominal wall
    a-the umbilicus is located in the territory of L1 dermatome
    b-rectus abdominis muscle has attachments to ant wall of rectus sheath
    c-left and right epigastric arteries anastomose
    d-distended veins radiating from umbilicus are indicative of portal hypertension
    e-Langer’s lines run vertically over the lower abdomen



    9-The pituitary gland
    a-lies below the diaphragm sellae
    b-is dev from 2 primordia
    c-communicates with hypothalamus
    d-lies inferior to optic chiasma
    e-is anterior to sphenoidal sinus

    10-The obturator nerve
    a- arises from segments L2,3,4
    b-crosses the sacroiliac joint as it enters pelvis
    c-innervates obturator internus
    d-is a lateral relation of ovary
    e-innervates the knee joint


    11-Concerning cells
    a-Glycosylation takes place in smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    b-LDL attach to cell memberane receptors
    c-Glycoproteins are present on cytosol surface of plasma memberane
    d-centrioles are composed of tubulin
    e-nuclear heterochromatin is genetically inactive


    12-Following are derived from urogenital sinus
    a-bladder trigone
    b-ureters
    c-female urethra
    d-greater vestibular glands
    e-paraurethral glands

    13-Following statements concerning the uterus are correct
    a-it is formed from mesonephric ducts
    b-it has a lymphatic drainage in part to inguinal glands
    c-Uterine artery pases below the ureter
    d-uterine veins communicate with vescical venous plexus
    e-pain sensation from the body of uterus is carried by pelvic splanchnic nerves


    14-In fetal cardiovascular system
    a-heart arises from endoderm
    b-heart is formed by fusion of endocardial tubes
    c-cardiac pulsation is present by 30th day after fertilisation
    d-oxygenated blood is transferred to the left atrium through the foramen ovale
    e-ductus arteriosus closes during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy


    15-Concerning growth hormone
    a-plasma levels are reduced by glucose infusion
    b-maternal plasma levels are directly related to fetal growth
    c-it is active on bone only until the epiphyses fuse
    d-its secretion is controlled by hypothalamus
    e-increased activity produces a positive nitrogen balance


    16-Arginine Vasopressin
    a-reduces GFR
    b-controls water loss iin proximal renal tubule
    c-is synthesised by post pituitary gland
    d-is released in response to a rise in plasma osmolality
    e- is released in response to a fall in circulating plasma volume


    17-Parathyroid hormone
    a-is a polypeptide
    b-increases bone resorption
    c-decreases phosphate excretion in urine
    d-secretion is diminished by an increase in serum ionised calcium concentration
    e-decreases the formation of 1,25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol


    18-Renin
    a-is secreted by zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex
    b-is a proteolytic enzyme
    c-is secreted at an increased rate if renal perfusion pressure falls
    d-acts upon circulating angiotensinogen
    e-is released in response to an increase in extracellular fluid volume

    19-Aldosterone secretion is increased
    a-on standing
    b-following haemorrhage
    c-durig pregnancy
    d-by hypocalcaemia
    e-on a low sodim diet

    20-Insulin secretion is stimulated by
    a-gastrin
    b-noradrenalin( norepinephrine)
    c-somatostatin
    d-glucagon
    e-arginine

    21-Concerning thyroid hormone
    a-Triiodothyronine is converted in tissues to thyroxine
    b-the circulating conc of thyroid binding globulin increases in pregnancy
    c-Triiodothyronine acts more rapidly than thyroxine
    d-Starvation causes plasma triiodothyronine concentration to rise
    e-D-thyroxine is more active than L-thyroxine


    22-In the human testis
    a-meiosis occurs between the early and late spermatid phases
    b-one spermatogonium always forms 8 spermatids
    c-fluid in seminiferous tubules contains high concentration of protein
    d-process of spermatogenesis takes 34 days
    e-inhibin is produced by primary spermatocytes


    23-Sex hormone binding globulin
    a-levels are increased in pregnancy
    b-is the main binding protein for progesterone
    c-levels are decreased during estrogen therapy
    d-is the main binding protein for aldosterone
    e-has a greater affinity than albumin for testosterone


    24-Recognised features of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in the female are
    a-acute hypotension
    b-enlargement of clitoris
    c-abnormal karyotype
    d-hirsuitism
    e-absent uterus


    25-Adrenal androgens
    a-are synthesised in zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex
    b-are secreted in excessive amounts in presence of 11beta hydroxylase deficiency
    c-stimulate protein synthesis
    d-consist mainly of testosterone
    e-are secreted in increased amounts in response to a rise in adrenocorticotrophic hormone


    26-During pregnancy uterine decidua synthesises
    a-HCG
    b-prostaglandin E2
    c-progesterone
    d-prolactin
    e-oxytocin



    27-Calcitonin
    a-is synthesised in parathyroid gland
    b-is a decapeptide
    c-secretion is increased at serum calcium levels below 1.5 mmol/l( 6.1 mg/100ml)
    d-inhibits bone resorption
    e-increases renal tubular excretion of calcium


    28-Following cell types are present in human corpus luteum
    a-endothelial cells
    b-macrophages
    c-pericytes
    d-fibroblasts
    e-granulosa cells

    29-Concerning ovarian functions
    a-Progesterone is a major steroid of the developing follicles
    b-Granulosa cells secrete estradiol
    c-estradiol is derived from androgen precursors
    d-insulin like growth factor( IGF-1) is not secreted by ovary
    e-circulating inhibin concentrations are a marker of granulosa cell function


    30-Folowing organisms are gram positive
    a-Streptococcus pneumoniae
    b-N. gonorrhoeae
    c-Salmonella typhi
    d-Lactobacillus
    e-Pseudomonas Aeuroginosa


    31-Toxic shock syndrome in women is
    a-associated with use of tampons
    b-due to toxigenic strain of streptococcus
    c-a consequence of previous antibiotic therapy
    d-infrequently reported outside North America
    e-confined to sexually active women


    32-Concerning Rubella
    a-It has a incubation period of 7-10 days
    b-Recurrent infection is a common cause of congenital malformation
    c-specific antibodies occur with in 14 days of infection
    d-individuals are infectious before the appearance of rash
    e-An attenuated live virus vaccine is used in immunisation


    33-Actinomyces Israelii
    a-is a rickettsia
    b-forms yellow granules in pus
    c-is a commensal in mouth
    d-is a commensal in vagina
    e-is usually resistant to penicillin

    34-Disease caused by spirochaetes include
    a-Weil’s disease
    b-Lymphogranuloma venereum
    c-pinta
    d-Vincent’s angina
    e-Bilharzia


    35-Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    a-is the only mycobacterium which is acid fast
    b-provokes humoral immunity
    c-does not form spores
    d-is a motile bacillus
    e-produces endotoxins

    36-Candida albicans
    a-is gram positive
    b-is a commensal in bowel
    c-is sensitive to miconazole
    d-causes sec. infection after t/t with broad spectrum antibiotics
    e-is cultured on alkaline media

    37-Following antibiotics act on bacterial cell walls
    a-Penicillin
    b-ceftazidime
    c-metronidazole
    d-clindamycin
    e-gentamycin


    38-Listeria mnocytogenes
    a-can grow at 6 degree centigrade
    b-isa gut commensal
    c-is a gram negative bacillus
    d-infection is best treated with benzylpenicillin
    e-is a cause of septicaemia in neonates


    39-Metronidazole
    a-is effective against giardia lamblia
    b-is effective when administered per rectum
    c-should not be administered intravenously
    d-is usually effective against Entamoeba histolytica
    e-interferes with ethanol metabolism


    40-Gentamicin
    a-is ineffective systemically when given by mouth
    b-is metabolised prior to excretion
    c-may cause damage to the 8th cranial nerve
    d-is a bacteriostatic drug
    e-toxicity ispotentiated by frusemide


    41-Effectiveness of combined oral contraceptive may be reduced by
    a-bromocriptine
    b-phenytoin
    c-rifampicin
    d-ampicillin
    e-sodium valproate


    42-Following agents are bronchodilators
    a-salbutamol
    b-atenolol
    c-prostaglandin F2 alpha
    d-morphine
    e-prednisolone


    43-Neostigmine in therapeutic doses
    a-acts for several days
    b-inhibits hydrolysis of acetyl choline
    c-causes paralytic ileus
    d-reverse the action of carbachol
    e-relieves the effects of myasthenia


    44-Halothane produces
    a-cardiac arrhythmias
    b-explosive mixtures with air
    c-liver damage if given repeatedly
    d-myometrial relaxation
    e-bronchial irritation


    45-Following substances increase the serum uric acid concentration
    a-colchicine
    b-chlorothiazide
    c-allopurinol
    d-probenecid
    e-phenylbutazone


    45-Therapeutic effect of first drug is enhanced by
    a-phenytoin:ethinyl estradiol
    b-bromocriptine:metoclopramide
    c-penicillin:probenecid
    d-ritrodine:dexamethasone
    e-warfarin:phenobarbitone


    46-In a sample of 1000 children, birth wt. was normally distributed with a mean of 3.5 kg and a standard deviation 700 g
    a-15 infants would be below 5th centile for weight
    b-standard error of birth weight would be about 22 g
    c-95 th centile for birth wt. would be 4.2 kg
    d-no baby would weigh less than 1.4 kg
    e-median birth wt. would be about 3.5 kg


    47-In a statistical analysis of any group of numerical observations
    a-mean is always less than mode
    b-median value lies at the mid point of the range
    c-standard deviation is always greater than standard error of mean
    d-standard error of mean is independent of total no. of observations
    e-there are the same no. of observations greater than and less than median value.


    48-In a randomised double blind trial comparing a new drug with a placebo
    a-patients will be taking either of the 2 active drugs
    b-patients can choose their method of t/t
    c-doctors prescribing t/t decide which p/t take the new drugs
    d-a large trial is more likely to give a statistically significant result than a small trial
    e-half of the patients will take the new drug


    49-In a trial of oral hypoglycaemic agents,42 p/t were given drug A and 38 drug B. Blood glucose conc were measured before and after a single dose of the drug.Drug B apparently caused a greater fall in blood glucose concentrations( P=0.06)
    a-These results reach an accepted level of statistical significance
    b-Non parametric statistical analysis should be used if data are not normally distributed
    c-In biological terms drugs A and B have been shown to be equally effective
    d-6% more patients responded to drug A than B
    e-Unequal numbers in the two groups invalidate the trial

    -------------------------------------***------------------------------------
  2. Dr. Helda

    Dr. Helda Guest

    1.Chromaffin cells
    a- are innervated by preganglinonic sympathetic fibres-T
    b-are present in adrenal cortex-F
    c-are derived from neuroectoderm-T
    d-can decarboxylate aminoacids-T
    e-are present in celiac ganglion-T


    2-The internal pudendal artery
    a-leaves the pelvis through lesser sciatic foramen-F
    b-lies on the medial wall of ischiorectal fossa-F
    c-has a branch which pierces the perineal memberane-T
    d-gives rise to middle rectal artery-F
    e-suppliesthe upper vagina-F

    3-The pelvic splanchnic nerves
    a- are derived from posterior ramii of sacral spinal nerves.-F
    b-supply afferent fibres-T
    c-unite with branches of sympathetic pelvic plexus-T
    d- supply the ascending colon with motor fibres-F
    e-supply the uterus with parasympathetic fibres.-T?????

    4-In the anterior abdominal wall
    a-rectus muscle is intersected transversely by three bands-T
    b-posterior rectus sheath below arcuate line consists of transversalis fascia only-T
    c-above the costal margin posterior rectus sheath is deficient-T
    d-superior epigastric artery arises from internal thoracic artery-F
    e-inferior epigastric artery arises from femoral artery-F

    5-The rectum
    a- is supplied in part by inferior rectal artery-T
    b-is innervated by inferior rectal nerve-F
    c-is lined by stratified squamous epithelium-F
    d-has its lymphatic drainage to superficial inguinal lymph nodes-F
    e-possess a complete outer layer of longitudinal muscle-T

    6-The obturator nerve
    a-emerges from the lateral border of psoas major-F
    b-is formed from the posterior divisions of 2,3,4th lumbar nerves-F
    c-passes lateral to internal iliac vessels -T
    d-lies below the obturator artery in obturator foramen-F
    e-is separated from the normally sited ovary only by pelvic peritoneum-T

    7-In the cerebral cortex
    a-the left visual field is represented in the right cerebral cortex-T
    b-the area directly concerned with the movements of hands and face is larger than that concerned with movements of legs and trunk-T
    c-in most people,left side is more concerned with speech than the right side-T
    d-pyramidal cells are present-T
    e-the blood supply is wholly from branches of internal carotid arteries-F

    8-The cervix
    a-consists chiefly of smooth muscle-F
    b-has a supravaginal part which is related anteriorly to ureter-F
    c-has a supravaginal part which is covererd with peritoneum anteriorly-F
    d-has pain sensation carried by pelvic splanchnic nerves-T
    e-is lined in its vaginal part by keratinised epithelium-F

    9-The right ureter lies in close relationship to the
    a-bifurcation of right common iliac artery-T
    b-infundibulopelvic ligament-T
    c-uterine artery-T
    d-inferior mesenteric artery-F
    e-parietal attachment of sigmoid mesocolon-F

    10-The pelvic surface of the sacrum
    a-gives origin to piriformis muscle-T
    b-gives origin to levator ani muscle-F
    c-is broader in male than in female-F
    d-transmits dorsal ramii of sacral nerves-F
    e-is in contact with anal canal-F

    11-In the fetal circulation
    a-ductus venosus delivers blood directly into sup. vena cava-F
    b-umbilical artery returns blood from the placenta-F
    c-ducuts arteriosus carries blood to lungs-F
    d-blood returning from lungs is 90% saturated with oxygen-F
    e-blood from the inferior vena cava is largely directed through the foramen ovale-T

    12-The ducuts venosus
    a-is part of embryonic heart-F
    b-is a shunt preventing blood from passing to fetal lungs-F
    c-gives rise to ligamentum teres-F
    d-carried blood with a higher PO2 than umbilical arterial blood-T
    e-is derived from anterior cardinal vein-F

    13-The following structures take part in formation of anterior fontanelle in fetal skull
    a-lambdoidal suture-F
    b-occipital suture-F
    c-sagittal suture-T
    d-glabella-F
    e-frontal suture-T

    14-Concerning the embryology of urinary tract
    a-detrusor has a mesodermal origin-T
    b-urogenital sinus is derived from cloaca-T
    c-allantois gives origin to lateral umbilical ligament-F
    d-metanephric ducts arise from mesonephric ducts-T???????
    e-mesonephric duct remnants form the epoophoron in the adult female-T

    15-The following tissues are paired with appropriate primary germ cell layer of origin
    a-mammary duct epithelium- ectoderm-T
    b-epithelium of tongue –mesoderm-F
    c-pineal gland-ectoderm-T
    d-ovarian stroma-mesoderm-T
    e-endometrium-mesoderm-F

    16-Adrenocorticotrophic hormone
    a-production is governed by hypothalamus-T
    b-production is maximal about midnight-F
    c-is present in placenta-T
    d-is increased in maternal plasma in pregnancy-T
    e-secretion is inhibited by glucocorticoids-T

    17-After the menopause
    a-the plasma concentration of FSH increases-T
    b-plasma progesterone concentration increases-F
    c-oestrone is the estrogen found in highest concentration in plasma-T
    d-plasma testosterone concentration doubles-F
    e-plasma prolactin concentration increases-F

    18-Successful lactation is
    a-maintained by estrogens-F
    b-maintained by progesterones-F
    c-initiated by prolactin surge-T
    d-maintained by human placental lactogen-F
    e-inhibited by dopamine-T

    19-In a woman of reproductive age,serum concentrations of following hormones exhibit a recognised pattern of diurnal variation
    a-progesterone-F
    b-melatonin-T
    c-cortisol-T
    d-oestrone-F
    e-FSH-F

    20-Serum concentration of following increase during pregnancy
    a-sex hormone binding globulin-T
    b-prolactin-T
    c-total thyroxine-T
    d-FSH-F
    e-17 alpha hydroxy progesterone-T

    21-LH
    a-is required for normal corpus luteum survival-T
    b-has a half life in circulation of 30 hrs-F.
    c-is released in pulses-T
    d-in the male stimulates testosterone production-T
    e-plasma concentration is increased in post menopausal women-T


    22-The release of catecholamine from the adrenal medulla increases
    a-during sleep in healthy individuals-F
    b-when the nerves to adrenal gland are stimulated-T
    c-following an increase in blood sugar-F
    d-immediately following a myocardial infarction-T
    e-during acute haemorrhage-T


    23-Prolactin
    a-release is stimulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone-T
    b-plasma levels are raised in 1st trimester of pregnancy-T
    c-released is increased by suckling-T
    d-may be produced by decidua-T
    e-release is inhibited by metoclopramide-F

    24-HCG
    a-is not produced by deciduas-T
    b-is biochemically indistinguishable from LH-F
    c-is active if given to non pregnant women-T
    d-production rises steadily throughout pregnancy-F
    e-has no influence upon the production of estrogens by placenta-T

    25-Huma placental lactogen
    a-concentration in maternal plasma is directly proportional to functional mass of placenta-T
    b-has a half life in blood of less than 1 hour-T
    c-is steroid hormone-F
    d-increases the mobilisation of maternal free fatty acids-T
    e-reaches the same concentration in fetal blood as in maternal blood at term-F


    26-The secretion of growth hormone
    a-occurs in hypothalamus-F
    b-ceases when the adult state is reached-F
    c-is decreased during stress-F
    d-is increased during fasting-T
    e-is increased with exercise-T

    27-Oxytocin
    a-is released episodically-T
    b-causes decreased renal tubular absorption of water-F
    c-is responsible for milk ejection-T
    d-reduces intestinal peristalsis-F
    e-inhibits prolactin secretion-F

    28-Hirsuitism in woman is characterstically associated with
    a-testicular feminisation-F
    b-turner syndrome-F
    c-polycystic ovarian syndrome-T
    d-arrhenoblastoma-T
    e-hypopituitarism-F

    29-Parathyroid hormone
    a-decreases the renal excretion of phosphate-F
    b-increases calcium resorption from bone-T
    c-depresses pituitary activity-F
    d-concentration in blood are raised when calcium level falls-T
    e-increases renal tubular absorption of calcium-T

    30-Aldosterone
    a-reduces sodium reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule-F
    b-reduces sodium reabsorptionin descending loop of henle-F
    c-increases sodium reabsorption in distal convoluted tubule-T
    d-increases potassium loss from the tubule-T
    e-increases sodium absorption in the collecting tubule-T

    31-17B estradiol
    a-is synthesised by aromatisation of testosterone-T
    b-vasodilates the uterine artery-F
    c-suppresses the uterine activity by upregulating the oxytocin receptor-F
    d-promotes secondary sexual hair growth in females-F
    e-is thrombogenic-T

    32-The germination of tetanus spores in wound is inhibited by
    a-tissue trauma-F
    b-oxygen-T
    c-injection of antitoxin-F
    d-injection of toxoid-F
    e-removal of devitalised tissue-T


    33-Proteolytic organisms are secreted by following organisms
    a-Neisseria Meningitidis-F
    b-Salmonella typhi-F
    c-Streptococcus pyogenes-T
    d-Mycobacterium tuberculosis-F
    e-Clostridium Perfringens( Welchii)-T

    34-CMV
    a-is an adenovirus-F
    b-may be cultured readily in cell free media-T
    c-is a cause of cerebral calcification-T
    d-causes haemolytic anaemia in neonate-T
    e-may be transmitted in saliva-T

    35-Treponema pallidum immobilisation test is positive in
    a-yaws-T
    b-infectious mononucleosis-F
    c-malaria-F
    d-chanchroid-F
    e-lyme disease( Borreliosis)-F


    36-Leptospirosis
    a-is caused by gram negative coccobacillus-F
    b-is frequently transmitted to man by inanimate objects-F
    c-can result in severe form of jaundice-T
    d-is a STD-F
    e-is transmitted in pasteurised cow’s milk-F

    37-Mycobacteria
    a-are non sporing-T
    b-are all acid fast in their staining reaction-T
    c-are facultative anaerobes-T
    d-are responsible for leprosy-T
    e-are all pathogenic in humans-F

    38-Following disorders and organisms are correctly paired
    a-Opthalmia neonatrum-Chlamydia trachomatis-T
    b-Chancroid haemophillus ducreyii-T
    c-Sleeping sickness- Leishmaina Donovani-F
    d-Ringworm-Trichinella spirallis-F
    e-non specific urethritis – toxoplasma gondii-F


    39-Following organisms are gram positive
    a-Mycoplasma hominis-F
    b-Staphylococcus Aureus-T
    c-Clostridium Perfringens-T
    d-Klebsiella Pneumoniae-F
    e-Bacteroides Fragilis-F

    40-Concerning hepatitis B virus infection
    a-Vertical transmission does not occur-F
    b-Sexual transmission occurs-T
    c-Core antigenaemia indicates high infectivity-F
    d-Hepatocellular carcinoma is a recognised complication-T
    e-An effective vaccine is available-T

    41-Following antibiotcs are usually effective against Pseudomona Aeuroginosa
    a-Cephradine-F
    b-Amoxycillin-F
    c-carbenicillin-T
    d-gentamicin-T
    e-trimethoprim-F

    42-Recognised unwanted effects of prostaglandin E include
    a-water retention-F
    b-increased uterine contractility-F
    c-increased small bowel peristalsis-T
    d-flushing of skin-T
    e-vomiting-T


    43-Following substances are sympathomimetic amines
    a-Amphetamine-T
    b-ephedrine-T
    c-histamine-F
    d-isoprenaline-T
    e-chlorpromazine-F

    44-Subcutaneous atropine injection characteristically produces
    a-increase in heart rare-T
    b-increase in salivation-F
    c-constriction of pupil-F
    d-hypnotic effect-T
    e-decreased bronchiolar secretion-T

    45-Follwing drugs have anticholinergic effects
    a-propatheline bromide-T
    b-carbachol-F
    c-distigmine bromide-F
    d-benzhexol-T
    e-atropine-T


    46-Treatment with morphine
    a-causes respiratory depression-T
    b-increases gastric motility-F
    c-causes side effects which may be reversed by naloxone-T
    d-increaes secretion of antidiuretic hormone-T
    e-causes papillary dilatation-F

    47-Hypokalaemia may be caused by
    a-bendrofluazide-T
    b-digoxin-T
    c-spironolactone-F
    d-carbenoxolone-T
    e-amiloride-F

    48-Concerning heparins
    a-heparin is synthesised in lungs-T
    b-antithrombin III is necessary for standard heparins to exert their anticoagulant effect-T
    c-factor X is inhibited by low molecular weight heparins-T
    d-Low mol wt. heparins have a longer half life than standard heparins-T
    e-penicillins potentiate the action of low mol. wt. heparins-F

    49-The following statistical statements are correct-
    a-in the normal distribution,the value of mode is 1.73 times the median-F
    b-in a distribution skew to the right,the mean lies to the left of median-F
    c-in the series- 2;7;5;2;3;2;5;8, the mode is 2-T
    d-student’s ‘t’ test is designed to correct for skew distribution-F
    e-the chi squared testmay be used when data are not normally distributed--F
  3. Dr. Helda

    Dr. Helda Guest

    In the human testis
    a-meiosis occurs between the early and late spermatid phases -- F....occurs in the spermatocytes
    b-one spermatogonium always forms 8 spermatids – ..FALSE....FOUR
    c-fluid in seminiferous tubules contains high concentration of protein ....false...high conc of fructose
    d-process of spermatogenesis takes 34 days – false....70 to 80 days
    e-inhibin is produced by primary spermatocytes ..false...by the sertoli cells
  4. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Really good work, thanks
    confirm paper 1 3eT

    4-In the anterior abdominal wall
    a-rectus muscle is intersected transversely by three bands-T
    b-posterior rectus sheath below arcuate line consists of transversalis fascia only-T
    c-above the costal margin posterior rectus sheath is deficient-T
    d-superior epigastric artery arises from internal thoracic artery-T
    e-inferior epigastric artery arises from femoral artery-F external iliac

    14-Concerning the embryology of urinary tract
    a-detrusor has a mesodermal origin-T
    b-urogenital sinus is derived from cloaca-T
    c-allantois gives origin to lateral umbilical ligament-F
    d-metanephric ducts arise from mesonephric ducts-F
    e-mesonephric duct remnants form the epoophoron in the adult female-T

    15-The following tissues are paired with appropriate primary germ cell layer of origin
    a-mammary duct epithelium- ectoderm-T
    b-epithelium of tongue –mesoderm-F
    c-pineal gland-ectoderm-T
    d-ovarian stroma-mesoderm-T
    e-endometrium-mesoderm-T

    32-The germination of tetanus spores in wound is inhibited by
    a-tissue trauma-F
    b-oxygen-T
    c-injection of antitoxin-T?
    d-injection of toxoid-T?
    e-removal of devitalised tissue-T

    42-Recognised unwanted effects of prostaglandin E include
    a-water retention-F
    b-increased uterine contractility-T
    c-increased small bowel peristalsis-T
    d-flushing of skin-T
    e-vomiting-T

    47-Hypokalaemia may be caused by
    a-bendrofluazide-T
    b-digoxin-F hypokalemia will increase toxicity of digoxin, but it does not cause hypokalemia
    c-spironolactone-F
    d-carbenoxolone-T
    e-amiloride-F

    48-Concerning heparins
    a-heparin is synthesised in lungs-F
    b-antithrombin III is necessary for standard heparins to exert their anticoagulant effect-T
    c-factor X is inhibited by low molecular weight heparins-T
    d-Low mol wt. heparins have a longer half life than standard heparins-T
    e-penicillins potentiate the action of low mol. wt. heparins-F

    49-The following statistical statements are correct-
    a-in the normal distribution,the value of mode is 1.73 times the median-F
    b-in a distribution skew to the right,the mean lies to the left of median-F
    c-in the series- 2;7;5;2;3;2;5;8, the mode is 2-T
    d-student’s ‘t’ test is designed to correct for skew distribution-F
    e-the chi squared testmay be used when data are not normally distributed--T
  5. Anch

    Anch Guest

    Paper 1. QS 32

    Qs.32 Germination of tetus spores...
    C. Injection of anti-toxin (F)
    D. Injection of toxoid (T)
    (answers from one examintion)
  6. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Hi friends,
    i am preparing for part 1 and found this forum very very useful.
    icould someone please post answers for 2005 sep and 2006 march papers
    vasu
  7. Guest

    Guest Guest

    question 6 C False, could anyone confirm it please

    paru
  8. hudaog

    hudaog Guest

    OG

    Qs.32 Germination of tetus spores...
    C. Injection of anti-toxin (T)
    D. Injection of toxoid (F)
    (answers from MRCOG examintion course 2007)




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  9. hudaog

    hudaog Guest

    47-Hypokalaemia may be caused by
    a-bendrofluazide-T
    b-digoxin-F hypokalemia will increase toxicity of digoxin, but it does not cause hypokalemia
    c-spironolactone-F
    d-carbenoxolone-T
    e-amiloride-F


    I found a different anser
    b-digoxin-T
    as in MRCOG course 2007 online
  10. doc jee

    doc jee Guest

    Would be really thankful if u could mail me the past questions ( i have none) with answers.
    I am sitting for the Sept 08 part 1 exams,Pls incase you are not able to get for me handy , i will be glad if you can direct me to whom to contact asap.Many thanks.
    jamesmedics@aol.com

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