MARCH 2006 MRCOG PART 1

Discussion in 'MRCOG Forum' started by pradhuym, Jul 9, 2006.

  1. pradhuym

    pradhuym Guest

    MARCH 2006 MRCOG PART 1



    The germination of tetanus spores in a wound is inhibited by
    a)tissue trauma
    b)oxygen
    c)injection of anti-toxin
    d)injection of toxoid
    e)removal of devitalised tissue

    The following values fall within the normal range for the adult female bladder
    a)residual volume of 100ml
    b)voiding capacity of 250ml
    c)bladder capacity of 900ml
    d)intravesical pressure rise of less than 10cm H2O during early filling
    e)maximum urine flow rate of 60ml per second

    In the small intestine, the following substances are absorbed by active processes
    a)water
    b)sodium
    c)vitamin K
    d)amino acids
    e)chloride

    White cell migration from blood vessels in areas of inflammation involves
    a)cell migration occurring between endothelial cells
    b)a passive loss of fluid blood elements
    c)cell migration independent of endothelial cell motion
    d)initial emigration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils
    e)more polymorphs that monocytes after 2 days

    Antibodies (!!)
    a)are soluble proteins
    b)are formed in the fetus before 12 weeks of intrauterine life
    c)have an average molecular weight of around 10000 daltons
    d)of the rhesus type are genetically transmitted
    e)are produced by the ribosomes of plasma cells

    In DNA
    a)a codon is a sequence of three bases
    b)all codons have an identified function
    c)there is a greater variety of amino acids than there are different codons
    d)replication can be initiated at several different points along a chromosome
    e)complementary pairing precedes messenger mRNA synthesis

    The inferior vena cava
    a)is formed at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra
    b)commences posterior to the right external iliac artery
    c)receives the left ovarian vein
    d)receives the right ovarian vein
    e)pierces the central tendon of the diaphragm

    In the normal human pelvis
    a)the promontory of the sacrum is in the upper anterior border of the first sacral vertebra
    b)the anterior surface of the sacrum has five paired foramina
    c)the joint between the two pubic bones is a synovial joint
    d)the acetabular fossa is wholly formed from parts of the pubic and ischial bones
    e)the transverse diameter of the brim is greater than the anteroposterior diameter

    Arginine vasopressin
    a)reduces the glomerular filtration rate
    b)controls water loss in the proximal renal tubule
    c)is synthesised by the posterior pituitary gland
    d)is released in response to a rise in plasma osmolality
    e)is released in response to a fall in circulating plasma volume

    Concerning ovarian function
    a)progesterone is the major steroid of the developing follicle
    b)granulosa cells secrete oestradiol
    c)oestradiol is derived from androgen precursors
    d)insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is not secreted by the ovary
    e)circulating inhibin concentrations are a marker of granulosa cell function

    Actinomyces israelii
    a)is a rickettsia
    b)forms yellow granules in pus
    c)is a commensal in the mouth
    d)is a commensal in the vagina
    e)is usually resistant to penicillin

    Halothane produces
    a)cardiac arrhythmias
    b)explosive mixtures with air
    c)liver damage if given repeatedly
    d)myometrial relaxation
    e)bronchial irritation

    The therapeutic effect of the first drug is enhanced by the second drug
    a)phenytoin: ethinyloestradiol
    b)bromocryptine: metoclopramide
    c)penicillin: probenicid
    d)ritodrine: dexamethasone
    e)warfarin: phenobarbitone

    Potassium
    a)is mainly intracellular
    b)plasma levels vary in proportion to intracellular levels
    c)plasma levels are decreased in Addison’s disease
    d)plasma levels are increased in diabetic ketoacidosis
    e)deficiency occurs with prolonged vomiting

    Concerning carbohydrates
    a)sucrose is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose
    b)cereal grains contain less than 40% starch
    c)cellulose is a fructose polysaccharide
    d)a normal diet contains less than 60g of carbohydrate daily
    e)dietary carbohydrate is oxidised in the body to carbon dioxide and water

    Steroid hormones
    a)all contain 20 carbon atoms
    b)can be produced by structures of urogenital ridge origin
    c)are mostly activated in the liver
    d)are predominantly excreted unchanged in the urine
    e)mainly circulate unbound to carrier proteins

    Ventilation is increased due to stimulation of central receptors by
    a)nikethamide
    b)hypoxia
    c)doxapram
    d)phenobarbitone
    e)salbutamol

    Tetrahydrofolic acid
    a)is involved in purine synthesis
    b)is a precursor of folic acid
    c)is a coenzyme in amino acid synthesis
    d)catalyses the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate
    e)activity is inhibited by Methotrexate

    Mitochondrial DNA
    a)is located in the nucleus
    b)inheritance is patrilineal
    c)is present in two copies per cell
    d)mutation causes cystic fibrosis
    e)is involved in the control of oxidative phosphorylation

    The following conditions may lead to hydronephrosis
    a)mercury poisoning
    b)cervical carcinoma
    c)renal calculi
    d)renal vein thrombosis
    e)posterior urethral valves

    In uncomplicated homozygous beta thalassaemia there is
    a)hypochromasia
    b)a reduction in haemoglobin A2
    c)an increase in haemoglobin F
    d)no depletion of iron stores
    e)the presence of megaloblasts in bone marrow

    The following statements relate to lung function in normal pregnancy
    a)vital capacity is increased by about 50%
    b)tidal volume is increased
    c)the subcostal angle increases
    d)the residual volume is reduced
    e)the respiratory rate is increased

    In normal pregnancy, uterine blood flow
    a)is about 50ml/minute at term
    b)is maintained throughout the cardiac cycle to the choriodecidual space
    c)is reduced by prostacyclin
    d)is increased during uterine contractions
    e)represents about 10% of the cardiac output by the end of the first trimester

    During normal pregnancy
    a)arterial pCO2 decreases
    b)the blood hydrogen ion concentration decreases
    c)plasma bicarbonate concentrations decrease
    d)urine pH falls
    e)lactic acid production is increased

    The anal canal
    a)has an upper part which is innervated by the inferior hypogastric plexus
    b)has a lower part which is supplied by the superior rectal artery
    c)drains lymph to the superficial inguinal nodes from its upper part
    d)has its internal sphincter innervated by the inferior rectal nerve
    e)has a superficial part of its external sphincter attached to the coccyx.

    Human placental lactogen
    a)is a single chain polypeptide
    b)reaches the same concentration in fetal and maternal blood at term
    c)may be secreted by the decidua
    d)is detectable only after the 25th week of pregnancy
    e)is an insulin antagonist

    Human chorionic gonadotrophin !!
    a)is a glycoprotein
    b)is detectable 48 hours after fertilisation occurs
    c)secretion peaks at 20 weeks of gestation
    d)is synthesised by the corpus luteum of pregnancy
    e)binds to luteinizing hormone receptors

    Cholecalciferol (vitamin D)
    a)promotes the absorption
    b)is 25-hydroxylated in the liver
    c)is synthesised in the SKIN
    d)is 1-hydroxylated in the kidney
    e)is most active in the 1,25-dihydroxyl form

    Unconjugated bilirubin !!
    a)is normally present in the plasma in lower concentration than conjugated bilirubin
    b)circulates in the plasma bound to albumin
    c)is not excreted in the urine
    d)does not cross the blood-brain barrier
    e)crosses the placenta

    The following are capable of cellular regeneration:
    a)spinal cord
    b)liver
    c)epidermis
    d)myocardium
    e)bone marrow

    The Leydig cells of the testis !!
    a)secrete seminal fluid
    b)are stimulated by luteinising hormone
    c)are active in intrauterine life
    d)secrete fructose
    e)produce androstenedione

    Angiotensin II !!
    a)is the most potent vasoconstrictor
    b)reduces aldosterone production
    c)is mainly found in the lungs
    d)is a decapeptide
    e)is produced when the extracellular fluid volume is reduced

    Cyproterone acetate
    a)is an oestrogen
    b)is used for the treatment of amenorrhoea
    c)binds to androgen receptors
    d)increases libido
    e)inhibits spermatogenesis

    Lignocaine used as a local anaesthetic !!
    a)causes tachycardia if given as a systemic injection
    b)has a longer lasting action than bupivicaine
    c)is used in combination with adrenaline for ring block
    d)causes vasoconstriction
    e)is a weak base

    Plasma osmolarity in the human
    a)is normally about 290 milliosmoles per kg in the nonpregnant state
    b)increases during the first trimester of pregnancy
    c)is closely controlled by plasma protein concentration
    d)is regulated by arginine vasopressin
    e)regulates the sensation of thirst

    In the statistical analysis of any group of numerical observations
    a)the mean is always less than the mode
    b)the median value always lies at the mid-point of the range
    c)standard deviation is always greater than the standard error of the mean
    d)the standard error of the mean is independent of the total number of observations
    e)there are the same number of observations greater than and less than the median value

    The pelvic splanchnic nerves
    a)are derived from the posterior rami of the sacral spinal nerves
    b)supply afferent fibres
    c)mix with branches of the sympathetic pelvic plexus
    d)supply the ascending colon with motor fibres
    e)supply the uterus with parasympathetic fibres

    Exotoxins
    a)are derived from gram-negative bacteria
    b)have specific action
    c)are more toxic than endotoxins
    d)are neutralised by their homologous antitoxin
    e)can be converted to toxoid

    Candida albicans
    a)is gram positive
    b)is an anaerobic organism
    c)is associated with diabetes mellitus
    d)is motile
    e)is inhibited by oral tetracycline therapy



    Transferrin
    a)is one third saturated with iron
    b)is increased in pregnancy
    c)binds to 10mg of iron per gram
    d)levels in the neonate are low
    e)is actively transported

    In Crohn’s disease there is
    a) non casesous granuloma formation
    b) formation of deep fissures
    c) formation of crypt abscesses
    d) the presence of mucosal polyps
    e) a recognised association with occurence in the vulva

    The rectum
    a) usually commences at the level of S3
    b) has a mesentery in its proximal third
    c) drains lymph to the pre-aortic nodes
    d) has a parasympathetic nerve supply derived entirely form the S3 spinal segment
    e) is about 25cm in length

    The female urethra (!!)
    a) traverses the perineal membrane
    b) is lined throughout by urothelium
    c) has a muscle layer continuous with that of the bladder
    d) has an external sphincter supplied by the obturator nerve
    e) corresponds developmentally to the membranous urethra in the male

    During menstruation, endometrial haemostasis depends upon
    a) a platelet and fibrin plug formation after the first 20 hours of bleeding
    b) oestrogen mediated vasoconstriction
    c) prostaglandin mediated spiral vessel constriction
    d) production of plasminogen activating factor by the glandular epithelial cells

    In HIV, seroconversion illness after a needlestick injury
    a)occurs within 1 to 4 weeks following exposure
    b)infectivity decreases after seroconversion
    c)the CD4 count is a useful adjunct in diagnosis
    d)measurement of HIV RNA viral load is most useful in diagnosis

    The following tumours arise in the ovary:
    a) nephroblastoma
    b) cystadenoma
    c) granulosa cell tumour
    d) neuroblastoma
    e) teratoma

    Early blood borne dissemination is a characteristic feature of:
    a) carcinoma of the endometrium
    b) osteosarcoma
    c) basal cell carcinoma
    d) carcinoma of the cervix
    e) choriocarcinoma

    Breast milk compared to cow's milk (!!)
    a) has more protein
    b) has more sodium
    c) contains more carbohydrate
    d) has more casein
    e) contains more calories

    The following are consequences of pulmonary embolism:
    a) pulmonary infarction
    b) fibrinous pleurisy
    c) right ventricular hypertrophy
    d) sudden death
    e) haemoptysis

    In a country wide survey, 10 general practices were picked at random and 5% of patients were selected at random from each practice:
    a) the sample of patients is a true random sample
    b) all practices had an equal chance of selection
    c) all patients had an equal chance of selection
    d) two siblings could not have been selected
    e) inferences about all patients in the country may be drawn from the sample

    Nitric oxide
    a) is synthesised in the endothelium
    b) has a short half life
    c) causes smooth muscle contraction
    d) increases during pregnancy
    e) combines with oxygen to produce L-arginine

    Carbohydrates
    a) yield 17kj/g of energy
    b) are a major source of energy for the brain
    c) are a a major component of the diet
    d) give a higher energy yield compared to fats

    Head mesenchyme gives rise to the following skull bones
    a)Parietal
    b)Mandible
    c)Maxillary
    d)Frontal
    e)Ethmoid

    Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis
    a) can be used to identify single gene defects
    b) is used in ICSI only
    c) testing for trisomy 21 should be offered in a case of ovum donation with a 45 year old recipient and 23 year old donor
    d) is routinely used in IVF in selection of embryos
    e) is governed by the regulations of the Human, Embryology and Fertilisation Authority

    The following are gram positive organisms
    a)Brucella
    b)Listeria
    c)Staphylococcus
    d)Vibrio cholera

    Endometriotic deposits
    a) only occur in the pelvis
    b) consist of deposits of endometrial stromal tissue without glands
    c) do not occur in postmenopausal women
    d) are hormone sensitive

    Amyloidosis
    a)Can be inherited
    b)Is associated with bronchiectasis
    c)Is a cause of cardiomyopathy

    Phenylketonuria
    a)can only be diagnosed in the adult
    b)is diagnosed by high levels of phenylpyruvate in the urine
    c)treatment is with diet restriction

    DUB (Dysfunctional uterine bleeding)
    a) is common at the extremes of life
    b) may be caused by coagulation disorders

    Chylomicrons
    a) are not normally present in the fasting state
    b) after hydrolysis of lipoproteins, mainly consist of phospholipid

    Other questions that I cannot remember in such detail were about:

    Insulin (*half life of 30min)
    Pituitary gland Anatomy (*contains pars tuberalis)
    Many Pathology questions (equivalents ie *ovarian dysgerminoma = seminoma?, *endodermal sinus tumour = yolk sac tumour?)
    Embryology (notochord, primitive streak, mesonephros derivatives)
    Ionising radiation (radiosensitivity ie *liver /intestinal epithelium - which is more radiosensitive; *is radiation exposure of dental x-ray equivalent to 1/5 that from a transatlantic flight)

    difference b/w human milk and cows milk
    casien
    lactose
    sodium
    ascorbic acid
    water
    phenyl ketoneuria
    inherited disorder
    cause by defficiency of phenyl alanine
    dietry restriction of tyrosine helpful
    diagnosed by measuring phenyl ketone level in urine
    essential amino acids
    are not synthesized by body sufficiently
    all ketogenic
    can produce energy dont remember exact wording
    radiation
    mostly harmful in 8-12 wks gestation
    xrays r ionizing radiation
    contraindicated in pregnancy
    transatlantic flight hv higher dose of radiation than xray
    MRI
    repeat q from sept paper
    chylomicrins
    responsible for turbulence of plsma?dont remem
    metabolized in adipose tissue -true 80% 20% in liver
    after hydrolysis by lipoprotien mainly phospholipids
    r absorbed form intestinal luminal cells to ----?
    ovarian tumors
    dysgerminoma and endodermal sinus tumor hv same origin
    choriocharcinoma can arise
    cocp increase risk of ovarian cancers -this qs repeated again in other qs with different wording
    b cells
    arise from plasma cells
    in pregnancy humoral immunity is depressed early in pregnany
    tumor necrotic factor alpha raised in parturition
    pulmonary embolism
    cause s
    sudden death
    fibrinous plurisy
    rt ventricular hypertrohy
    haemoptysis
    repeated from sept 05
    transferrin -
    endo metrium
    hiv seroconversion
    carbohydrate
    preimplantation diagnosis repeat from march 2005
    progesteron
    following rise in leuteal phase
    basal body temp
    progesterone
    LH--PLZ SOME ONE ADD I DONT REMEMBER
    NOTOCHORD
    R SOLID CELLS
    GIVE RISE TO brain --?
    SKULL MESENCHYME GIVE RISE
    TEMPORAL BONE
    FRONTAL
    PARIETAL


    Q-Disinfectant solutions may become contaminated with:
    1-Enterobacter species
    2-Streptococcus species
    3-Escherichia coli
    4-Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    5-Staphyloccus pyogenes

    Q-Examples of active transport across a membrane include the passage of:
    1-Potassium ions into the neurons
    2-Water into the proximal renal tubular cell
    3-Glucose from the proximal renal tubular cell
    4-Fatty acids into the mucosal cells of the intestine
    5-Hydrogen ions from the gastric oxyntic cells.


    ENDOMETRIOSIS
    has endometrial tissue with no glands
    not occurs after menopause
  2. Shin

    Shin Guest

    The following values fall within the normal range for the adult female bladder
    Fa)residual volume of 100ml
    Tb)voiding capacity of 250ml
    Fc)bladder capacity of 900ml
    Td)intravesical pressure rise of less than 10cm H2O during early filling
    Fe)maximum urine flow rate of 60ml per second

    Let's solve this paper . one day one question/ >1 question
  3. Shin

    Shin Guest

    The germination of tetanus spores in a wound is inhibited by
    Fa)tissue trauma
    Tb)oxygen
    Fc)injection of anti-toxin
    Td)injection of toxoid
    Te)removal of devitalised tissue

    In DNA
    Ta)a codon is a sequence of three bases
    Tb)all codons have an identified function
    Fc)there is a greater variety of amino acids than there are different codons
    Td)replication can be initiated at several different points along a chromosome
    Fe)complementary pairing precedes messenger mRNA synthesis
  4. Shin

    Shin Guest

    Correction
    In DNA
    a)a codon is a sequence of three bases
    b)all codons have an identified function
    c)there is a greater variety of amino acids than there are different codons
    d)replication can be initiated at several different points along a chromosome
    T e)complementary pairing precedes messenger mRNA synthesis
  5. Shin

    Shin Guest

    Concerning ovarian function
    Fa)progesterone is the major steroid of the developing follicle
    Tb)granulosa cells secrete oestradiol
    Tc)oestradiol is derived from androgen precursors
    Td)insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is not secreted by the ovary
    Fe)circulating inhibin concentrations are a marker of granulosa cell function

    Actinomyces israelii
    Fa)is a rickettsia
    Tb)forms yellow granules in pus
    Tc)is a commensal in the mouth
    Fd)is a commensal in the vagina
    Fe)is usually resistant to penicillin
  6. Shin

    Shin Guest

    In the small intestine, the following substances are absorbed by active processes
    F a)water
    T b)sodium
    F c)vitamin K
    T d)amino acids
    T e)chloride

    White cell migration from blood vessels in areas of inflammation involves
    T a)cell migration occurring between endothelial cells
    F b)a passive loss of fluid blood elements
    T c)cell migration independent of endothelial cell motion
    T d)initial emigration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils
    F e)more polymorphs that monocytes after 2 days
  7. Shin

    Shin Guest

    Which are formed from intramembranous ossification?
    T Temporal , occipital, parietal
    F. Sphenoid, Ethmoid
  8. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Antibodies (!!)
    Ta)are soluble proteins -- Ab are glycoprotein. Are they soluble? not sure
    Fb)are formed in the fetus before 12 weeks of intrauterine life
    Fc)have an average molecular weight of around 10000 daltons
    Fd)of the rhesus type are genetically transmitted
    Te)are produced by the ribosomes of plasma cells
  9. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Correction
    The germination of tetanus spores in a wound is inhibited by
    Fa)tissue trauma
    Tb)oxygen
    Tc)injection of anti-toxin
    Td)injection of toxoid
    Te)removal of devitalised tissue
  10. Guest

    Guest Guest

    Insulin (*half life of 30min) F
    Pituitary gland Anatomy (*contains pars tuberalis)F

    Q-Disinfectant solutions may become contaminated with:
    T1-Enterobacter species
    F2-Streptococcus species
    F3-Escherichia coli
    T4-Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    F5-Staphyloccus pyogenes
  11. Guest

    Guest Guest

    As a ref:

    The inferior vena cava
    Ta)is formed at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra
    Fb)commences posterior to the right external iliac artery
    Fc)receives the left ovarian vein
    Td)receives the right ovarian vein
    Te)pierces the central tendon of the diaphragm

    In the normal human pelvis
    Ta)the promontory of the sacrum is in the upper anterior border of the first sacral vertebra
    Fb)the anterior surface of the sacrum has five paired foramina
    Fc)the joint between the two pubic bones is a synovial joint
    d)the acetabular fossa is wholly formed from parts of the pubic and ischial bones
    Te)the transverse diameter of the brim is greater than the anteroposterior diameter

    Arginine vasopressin
    Fa)reduces the glomerular filtration rate
    Fb)controls water loss in the proximal renal tubule
    Fc)is synthesised by the posterior pituitary gland
    Td)is released in response to a rise in plasma osmolality
    Te)is released in response to a fall in circulating plasma volume

    Concerning ovarian function
    Fa)progesterone is the major steroid of the developing follicle
    Tb)granulosa cells secrete oestradiol
    Tc)oestradiol is derived from androgen precursors
    Td)insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) is not secreted by the ovary
    Fe)circulating inhibin concentrations are a marker of granulosa cell function

    Actinomyces israelii
    Fa)is a rickettsia
    Tb)forms yellow granules in pus
    Tc)is a commensal in the mouth
    Fd)is a commensal in the vagina
    Fe)is usually resistant to penicillin

    Halothane produces
    Ta)cardiac arrhythmias
    Fb)explosive mixtures with air
    Tc)liver damage if given repeatedly
    Td)myometrial relaxation
    Fe)bronchial irritation

    The therapeutic effect of the first drug is enhanced by the second drug
    Fa)phenytoin: ethinyloestradiol
    Fb)bromocryptine: metoclopramide
    Tc)penicillin: probenicid
    Td)ritodrine: dexamethasone
    Fe)warfarin: phenobarbitone

    Potassium
    Ta)is mainly intracellular
    Fb)plasma levels vary in proportion to intracellular levels
    Fc)plasma levels are decreased in Addison’s disease
    Td)plasma levels are increased in diabetic ketoacidosis
    Te)deficiency occurs with prolonged vomiting

    Concerning carbohydrates
    Ta)sucrose is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose
    Fb)cereal grains contain less than 40% starch
    Fc)cellulose is a fructose polysaccharide
    Fd)a normal diet contains less than 60g of carbohydrate daily
    Te)dietary carbohydrate is oxidised in the body to carbon dioxide and water

    Steroid hormones
    Fa)all contain 20 carbon atoms
    Tb)can be produced by structures of urogenital ridge origin
    Fc)are mostly activated in the liver
    Fd)are predominantly excreted unchanged in the urine
    Fe)mainly circulate unbound to carrier proteins

    Ventilation is increased due to stimulation of central receptors by
    Ta)nikethamide
    Tb)hypoxia
    Tc)doxapram
    Fd)phenobarbitone
    Fe)salbutamol

    Tetrahydrofolic acid
    Ta)is involved in purine synthesis
    Fb)is a precursor of folic acid
    Fc)is a coenzyme in amino acid synthesis
    Fd)catalyses the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate
    Te)activity is inhibited by Methotrexate

    Mitochondrial DNA
    Ta)is located in the nucleus
    Fb)inheritance is patrilineal
    Fc)is present in two copies per cell
    Fd)mutation causes cystic fibrosis
    Te)is involved in the control of oxidative phosphorylation

    The following conditions may lead to hydronephrosis
    ?Fa)mercury poisoning
    Tb)cervical carcinoma
    Tc)renal calculi
    ?Fd)renal vein thrombosis
    Te)posterior urethral valves

    In uncomplicated homozygous beta thalassaemia there is
    Ta)hypochromasia
    Fb)a reduction in haemoglobin A2
    Tc)an increase in haemoglobin F
    Td)no depletion of iron stores
    Fe)the presence of megaloblasts in bone marrow

    The following statements relate to lung function in normal pregnancy
    Fa)vital capacity is increased by about 50% (ans from busyspr)
    Tb)tidal volume is increased
    Tc)the subcostal angle increases
    Td)the residual volume is reduced
    Fe)the respiratory rate is increased

    In normal pregnancy, uterine blood flow
    Fa)is about 50ml/minute at term
    Tb)is maintained throughout the cardiac cycle to the choriodecidual space
    Fc)is reduced by prostacyclin
    Fd)is increased during uterine contractions
    Te)represents about 10% of the cardiac output by the end of the first trimester


    P.200 sep 2001 paper 2 Q 46
    During normal pregnancy
    Ta)arterial pCO2 decreases
    Fb)the blood hydrogen ion concentration decreases
    Tc)plasma bicarbonate concentrations decrease
    Fd)urine pH falls
    ?Te)lactic acid production is increased

    The anal canal
    Ta)has an upper part which is innervated by the inferior hypogastric plexus
    Fb)has a lower part which is supplied by the superior rectal artery
    Fc)drains lymph to the superficial inguinal nodes from its upper part
    Fd)has its internal sphincter innervated by the inferior rectal nerve
    Te)has a superficial part of its external sphincter attached to the coccyx.

    Human placental lactogen
    ?Ta)is a single chain polypeptide
    Fb)reaches the same concentration in fetal and maternal blood at term
    Tc)may be secreted by the decidua
    ?Fd)is detectable only after the 25th week of pregnancy
    ?TTe)is an insulin antagonist

    Human chorionic gonadotrophin !!
    Ta)is a glycoprotein
    ?Tb)is detectable 48 hours after fertilisation occurs
    Fc)secretion peaks at 20 weeks of gestation
    Fd)is synthesised by the corpus luteum of pregnancy
    Te)binds to luteinizing hormone receptors

    Cholecalciferol (vitamin D)
    Ta)promotes the absorption
    Tb)is 25-hydroxylated in the liver
    Tc)is synthesised in the SKIN
    Td)is 1-hydroxylated in the kidney
    Te)is most active in the 1,25-dihydroxyl form

    Unconjugated bilirubin !!
    ?Fa)is normally present in the plasma in lower concentration than conjugated bilirubin
    ?Tb)circulates in the plasma bound to albumin
    Fc)is not excreted in the urine
    Fd)does not cross the blood-brain barrier
    ?Te)crosses the placenta

    The following are capable of cellular regeneration:
    Fa)spinal cord
    Tb)liver
    Tc)epidermis
    Fd)myocardium
    Te)bone marrow

    The Leydig cells of the testis !!
    Fa)secrete seminal fluid
    Tb)are stimulated by luteinising hormone
    Tc)are active in intrauterine life
    Fd)secrete fructose
    ?Fe)produce androstenedione

    Angiotensin II !!
    Ta)is the most potent vasoconstrictor
    Fb)reduces aldosterone production
    Tc)is mainly found in the lungs
    Fd)is a decapeptide -- angiotensin I is a decapeptide
    Te)is produced when the extracellular fluid volume is reduced

    Cyproterone acetate
    Fa)is an oestrogen --is an antiandrogenic progesterone
    Fb)is used for the treatment of amenorrhoea -- treat hirsutism
    Tc)binds to androgen receptors
    Fd)increases libido
    Te)inhibits spermatogenesis

    Lignocaine used as a local anaesthetic
    Ta)causes tachycardia if given as a systemic injection
    Fb)has a longer lasting action than bupivicaine
    Fc)is used in combination with adrenaline for ring block
    Fd)causes vasoconstriction
    Te)is a weak base

    Plasma osmolarity in the human
    Ta)is normally about 290 milliosmoles per kg in the nonpregnant state
    Fb)increases during the first trimester of pregnancy
    ?Fc)is closely controlled by plasma protein concentration
    Td)is regulated by arginine vasopressin
    Te)regulates the sensation of thirst

    In the statistical analysis of any group of numerical observations
    Fa)the mean is always less than the mode
    Tb)the median value always lies at the mid-point of the range
    Tc)standard deviation is always greater than the standard error of the mean
    Fd)the standard error of the mean is independent of the total number of observations
    Te)there are the same number of observations greater than and less than the median value

    The pelvic splanchnic nerves
    Fa)are derived from the posterior rami of the sacral spinal nerves
    Fb)supply afferent fibres
    Tc)mix with branches of the sympathetic pelvic plexus
    Fd)supply the ascending colon with motor fibres
    Te)supply the uterus with parasympathetic fibres

    Exotoxins
    Ta)are derived from gram-negative bacteria
    Tb)have specific action
    Tc)are more toxic than endotoxins
    Td)are neutralised by their homologous antitoxin
    Te)can be converted to toxoid

    Candida albicans
    Ta)is gram positive
    Fb)is an anaerobic organism
    Tc)is associated with diabetes mellitus
    Fd)is motile
    Fe)is inhibited by oral tetracycline therapy
    T treat with miconazole
    T commonsal in intestine


    Transferrin
    Ta)is one third saturated with iron
    c)binds to 10mg of iron per gram
    d)levels in the neonate are low
    e)is actively transported
    Increased in pregnancy t



    In Crohn’s disease there is
    ?Ta) non casesous granuloma formation
    Tb) formation of deep fissures
    Tc) formation of crypt abscesses
    Td) the presence of mucosal polyps
    e) a recognised association with occurence in the vulva

    The rectum
    Ta) usually commences at the level of S3
    Fb) has a mesentery in its proximal third
    Tc) drains lymph to the pre-aortic nodes
    Td) has a parasympathetic nerve supply derived entirely form the S3 spinal segment
    Fe) is about 25cm in length

    The female urethra (!!)
    a) traverses the perineal membrane
    b) is lined throughout by urothelium
    c) has a muscle layer continuous with that of the bladder
    d) has an external sphincter supplied by the obturator nerve
    e) corresponds developmentally to the membranous urethra in the male


    During menstruation, endometrial haemostasis depends upon
    a) a platelet and fibrin plug formation after the first 20 hours of bleeding
    b) oestrogen mediated vasoconstriction
    Tc) prostaglandin mediated spiral vessel constriction
    d) production of plasminogen activating factor by the glandular epithelial cells

    During menstruation endometrial hemostasis depends upon

    Platelet and fibrin plug formation after first 20 hrs of bleeding
    Production of PAF by glandular epithelial cells
    Estrogen mediated hemostasis
    PG mediated hemostasis



    In HIV, seroconversion illness after a needlestick injury
    Ta)occurs within 1 to 4 weeks following exposure
    ?Tb)infectivity decreases after seroconversion
    Tc)the CD4 count is a useful adjunct in diagnosis
    Td)measurement of HIV RNA viral load is most useful in diagnosis
    HIV seroconversion
    Illness occurs witin 1-4 wks......T...........SEROCONVERSION OCCURS IN FIRST FEW WEEKS......FOLLOWED BY SIGNS OF ILLNESS
    After illness infectivity decreases ..........F.........I THINK SO BECAUSE THOUGH ITS A LATENT PHASE AND NO OVERT SYMPTOMS OCCUR WHILE THE VIRUS MULTIPLIES, I THINK INFECTIVITY REMAINS JUST THE SAME.........
    The best available diagnostic test is HIV viral load assay........T.........FROM AN OBSTETRIC POINT OF VIEW.....VIRAL LOAD IS THE ONLY USEFUL WAY OF PREDICTING DISEASE......BECAUSE SEROLOGY IS UNRELIABLE IN ITS RESULTS DUE TO MATERNAL ANTIBODIES......WHICH MIGHT TAKE UPTO 18MONTHS TO DIE DOWN...
    Without any intervention during pregnancy the mother to child transmission rate is 80% .........F.....ITS 15-45%......LATTER IN UNTREATED CASES......
    Mode of delivery by LSCS decreases the transmission to baby......T.....CAN BRING THE TRANSMISS DOWN TO 2%
    Short course of anti viral Rx during labor decreases transmission to baby.........T
    BF is safe ........F.......MOST IMP METHOD OF TRASMISS IF OTHER PREVENTIVE MEASURES HAVE BEEN UNDERTAKEN....


    The following tumours arise in the ovary:
    Fa) nephroblastoma
    Tb) cystadenoma
    Tc) granulosa cell tumour
    Fd) neuroblastoma
    Te) teratoma

    Early blood borne dissemination is a characteristic feature of:
    Fa) carcinoma of the endometrium
    Tb) osteosarcoma
    Fc) basal cell carcinoma
    Fd) carcinoma of the cervix
    Te) choriocarcinoma

    Breast milk compared to cow's milk (!!)
    a) has more protein
    Tb) has more sodium
    c) contains more carbohydrate
    d) has more casein
    e) contains more calories
    difference b/w human milk and cows milk
    Tlactose
    Tsodium
    ascorbic acid
    Twater

    PS:human milk contains more water

    The following are consequences of pulmonary embolism:
    Ta) pulmonary infarction
    Tb) fibrinous pleurisy
    ?Fc) right ventricular hypertrophy
    Td) sudden death
    Te) haemoptysis

    In a country wide survey, 10 general practices were picked at random and 5% of patients were selected at random from each practice:
    Ta) the sample of patients is a true random sample
    Tb) all practices had an equal chance of selection
    Tc) all patients had an equal chance of selection
    Fd) two siblings could not have been selected
    Te) inferences about all patients in the country may be drawn from the sample
    ans from onexamination

    Nitric oxide
    Ta) is synthesised in the endothelium
    Tb) has a short half life
    Fc) causes smooth muscle contraction
    Td)production is increases during pregnancy
    e) combines with oxygen to produce L-arginine
    T generated by arginine (from onexamination)

    Carbohydrates
    a) yield 17kj/g of energy
    b) are a major source of energy for the brain
    ?Tc) are a a major component of the diet
    Fd) give a higher energy yield compared to fats

    Head mesenchyme gives rise to the following skull bones
    a)Parietal
    b)Mandible
    c)Maxillary
    d)Frontal
    e)Ethmoid

    Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis
    Ta) can be used to identify single gene defects
    Fb) is used in ICSI only
    Fc) testing for trisomy 21 should be offered in a case of ovum donation with a 45 year old recipient and 23 year old donor
    Fd) is routinely used in IVF in selection of embryos
    ?Te) is governed by the regulations of the Human, Embryology and Fertilisation Authority

    The following are gram positive organisms
    ?Fa)Brucella
    Tb)Listeria
    Tc)Staphylococcus
    ?Fd)Vibrio cholera

    Endometriotic deposits
    Fa) only occur in the pelvis
    ?Tb) consist of deposits of endometrial stromal tissue without glands
    ?Fc) do not occur in postmenopausal women
    ?Td) are hormone sensitive

    Amyloidosis
    Ta)Can be inherited
    Tb)Is associated with bronchiectasis
    Tc)Is a cause of cardiomyopathy
    (ref: Familial Amyloidosis

    Familial amyloidosis, or ATTR, is a rare form of inherited amyloidosis. The amyloid deposits in familial amyloidosis are composed of the protein transthyretin, or TTR, which is made in the liver. Familial amyloidosis is inherited an autosomal dominant in genetics terminology)
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/...ve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12472203&dopt=Abstract
    http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3365.htm
    When the heart is involved heavily but the nerves are not, the disease is called familial amyloid cardiomyopathy (FAC).


    Phenylketonuria
    Fa)can only be diagnosed in the adult
    Tb)is diagnosed by high levels of phenylpyruvate in the urine
    ?Tc)treatment is with diet restriction
    ?Tinherited disorder
    Fcause by defficiency of phenyl alanine ( defficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase)
    Fdietry restriction of tyrosine helpful (restriction of phenylalanine)
    ?Fdiagnosed by measuring phenyl ketone level in urine

    DUB (Dysfunctional uterine bleeding)
    Ta) is common at the extremes of life
    Tb) may be caused by coagulation disorders


    Insulin (*half life of 30min) T
    Pituitary gland Anatomy (*contains pars tuberalis) F

    Many Pathology questions
    (equivalents ie *ovarian dysgerminoma = seminoma?,
    *endodermal sinus tumour = yolk sac tumour?)

    Embryology (notochord, primitive streak, mesonephros derivatives)

    NOTOCHORD
    R SOLID structure as it forms --T
    GIVE RISE TO brain -F
    F is formed from primitive streak (ans from mrcogexam)
    F fuses temporally with the endoblast of yolk sac

    Ionising radiation
    (?T radiosensitivity ie *liver /intestinal epithelium - which is more radiosensitive;
    *is radiation exposure of dental x-ray equivalent to 1/5 that from a transatlantic flight)

    essential amino acids
    Fare not synthesized by body sufficiently
    ?Tall ketogenic
    ?Tcan produce energy dont remember exact wording
    Are ONLY used for the synthesis or important body proteins.
    Canot be catabolised for energy.


    radiation
    ?Tmostly harmful in 8-12 wks gestation
    Txrays r ionizing radiation
    Tcontraindicated in pregnancy
    transatlantic flight hv higher dose of radiation than xray

    Biophysics:
    Radiation effect more in hypoxic tissue..false
    Bone, peripheral nerve and muscle are senstive to radiation..false
    Intestine and bone marrow are sestive to radiation..true


    chylomicrins
    Ta) are not normally present in the fasting state
    ?Tresponsible for turbulence of plsma?dont remem
    metabolized in adipose tissue -true 80% 20% in liver
    Fafter hydrolysis by lipoprotien mainly phospholipids
    ?F r absorbed form intestinal luminal cells to ----?
    (ref: Monoglycerides and free fatty acids associate with bile salts and lecithin to form micelles *
    The core of the micelle is composed of cholesterol and fat soluble vitamins *
    Monoglycerides, cholesterol and free fatty acids are absorbed by passive diffusion across the duodenal and jejunal mucosa while the bile salts remain in the lumen and are absorbed in the terminal ileum
    Chylomicrons have a core of triglycerides and cholesterol and a coat of protein and phospholipids




    ovarian tumors
    Tchoriocharcinoma can arise

    cocp
    F increase risk of ovarian cancers

    Pill failure:
    tetracycline…T
    Rifmpicin…true
    digoxin....F
    phenobarbitone....T

    Contraindicated in breast feeding:
    cascara.....T
    phenophthalien...F
    norethisterone.....F
    chloramphenicol...T
    sulphonamides......T


    b cells
    Farise from plasma cells
    in pregnancy humoral immunity is depressed early in pregnany
    Ftumor necrotic factor

    alpha raised in parturition

    pulmonary embolism cause s :
    Tsudden death
    Tfibrinous plurisy
    Frt ventricular hypertrohy
    Thaemoptysis

    following rise in leuteal phase
    Tbasal body temp
    Tprogesterone


    SKULL MESENCHYME GIVE RISE
    TEMPORAL BONE
    FRONTAL
    PARIETAL

    Q-Examples of active transport across a membrane include the passage of:
    ?T1-Potassium ions into the neurons
    F2-Water into the proximal renal tubular cell --F
    ?T3-Glucose from the proximal renal tubular cell
    F4-Fatty acids into the mucosal cells of the intestine
    5-Hydrogen ions from the gastric oxyntic cells.
    (ref: glucose absorption in small intestine n renal tubules is active,all other places is facilitated using GLUT.
    also Na/K pump is active.
    Na absorption is active in renal tubules.
    Monoglycerides, cholesterol and free fatty acids are absorbed by passive diffusion across the duodenal and jejunal mucosa while the bile salts remain in the lumen and are absorbed in the terminal ileum )



    ENDOMETRIOSIS
    has endometrial tissue with no glands
    ?Tnot occurs after menopause

    Regarding data

    a The coefficient of variation expresses the Standard deviation as a proportion of the mean

    b Standard error of mean indicates how close a sample is to the population mean

    c A probability of one means that an event has one in ten chance of happening

    d Logarithmictransfoormation is a method of normalizing data that are not normally distributed

    e ANOVA is used for normally distributed data


    Indomethacin can block ovulaion

    Pulsatile release of LH occurs in first weel of life

    RBCs possess the antigens of ABO system in fetus

    MRI involves the administration of radio labelled compound

    Doppler effect is used to detect movement

    Proton is injected to improve contrast during MRI

    ref: http://www.rxpgonline.com/postp284945.html&highlight=#284945
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  12. Guest

    Guest Guest

    MRCOG part 1 2006

    Just a query about the question re ventilation and stimulation of central chemoreceptors...someone said true for hypoxia. From my knowledge, the central chemoreceptors respond to pH and CO2, not O2, rather the PERIPHERAL aortic and carotid bodies respond to O2 and thus hypoxia.

    Can someone confirm this is indeed correct?

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