March 2009 Qns.

Discussion in 'MRCOG Forum' started by dikshant., Mar 3, 2009.

  1. dikshant.

    dikshant. Guest

    TRACHEA LINING
    LINING OF ECTOCX,ENDOCX,VULVA,ANAL CANAL,

    MESTROLONE:TERATOGENIC:T

    FIMBRIAL CYST:ORIGIN

    ATLANTIC FLIGHT=1/10 OF DENTAL XRAY EXPOSURE:F

    DNA MICROARRAY USES RFLP

    OCCIPITAL SKULL DEFECTS IN SYNDROME

    DEVELOPMENT OF TESTIS AFTER DAYS OF FERTILIZATION,DEF YOLK SAC

    RECEPTORS FOR ESTROGEN,PROGESTERONE,PROSTAGLANDIN,INSULIN
    OBTURATOR N

    URETER,PELVIS:M/F DIFFERENCE,
    BREAST,
    CERVICAL SMEAR NORMAL,CONTAINS,
    PITUITARY:REPEAT Q
  2. manal dr

    manal dr Guest

    march 2009

    ]very dificult exam 7 quastion statistic
  3. prakruthi

    prakruthi Guest

    march 2009,part 1

    :( true paper 2 was difficult.
  4. dicky.

    dicky. Guest

    EMQ type of hpv causing benign wart
    type of hpv causing cancer cx

    MCQ down syndrome
    associated with duodenal atresia true
    associated with ambig genetalia false
    only maternal chromosome F
    only paternal chromosome F

    MCQ oogonia
    miosis starts at puberty
    miosis before mitosis
    during S phase chromosomes are doubled
    Q FROM MARCH 2008
  5. senaz.

    senaz. Guest

    Q FROM MARCH 2008
    emq about vitamins (hyperemesis) i wrote vit B6
    and (xerophthalmia)
    q about endometrial hyperplasia
    q about side effect of drug (carboplatin)-(taxal)
    q about arias stella
    if its specific in pregnancy
    q about chlamydia
    q about varicella
    q about hpv ,wart
    answers 16 or 18 or 6,11
    q about hcg conc in pregnancy
    citric acid cycle diagram
    hormones diagram
    fsh,lh,estrogen,testosteron
    q about:by transvaginal u/s yolk sac apear in which week
    many questions in genetic about pcr,fish test
    q about laser
    q in Pathology
    about totipotent cell,tumour like mass
    q about voiding presure
    q about ca requirement in pregnancy
    q about test used to diagnose folic acid deficency
    q about thalasthmia
    q about cervical ectropion
    cells i choose columner cell
    - mri contraindicated in early pregnancy
    q about stallete instability in dna
    - transverse abdominus ms attached to lumbar transverse process
    -cut s1 lead to autonomic bladder
    q about cancer which are hormone dependent
    -breast
    -prostate
    -thyroid
    q about guthre test
    q about cystic fibrosis and diagnosis
    -swet test -karyotyping-fish test
    q about disinfection and sterelization
    q about complication of contraceptive pills

    do your best
  6. senaz.

    senaz. Guest

    EMQS

    1lining of ureter
    2.erythropoeitin and
    renin q from john duthie
    3complications of cisplatin
    4 paclitaxel
    5statistics -std error calculation
    7 mean in a normal distribution
    8occipito frontal diametr
    9hcg titre at detection by tvs
    10 at 3 days aftr fertilization
    11crl in scan is 60mm what is gestational age
    12crl at term ?
    13 parietal sutur is between
    14kuffer cells are -phagocytic
  7. senaz.

    senaz. Guest

    15 estradiol receptors
    16 progestrone receptors -we know that thes are intra nuclear but there were 2 confusin options with intranuclear plz refer this in depth , one option had intranuclear kinase or somethin
    16anticonvulsant with description of phenytoin
    17vitamin deficiency causin hyperemesis
    18 - macrocytic anemia
    19 -xerophtalmia
    20 cystic fibrosis 3 emqs
    24 citric acid cyle diagrm , enzymes were options
    complement causes
    26 b thalasemia detection
    27 folate def detection
    29 basal cell ca - local malignant
    30tumor like -hamaroma
  8. quest.

    quest. Guest

    Breast:
    Endodermal….false -- ectoderm
    Lies entirely in the superficial ascia..true
    2nd - 7th ribs --True
    Drained by int.thoracic vein…true + lateral thoracic + intercostal a.
    Lies anterior to the serratus anterior..true
    Contains proliferating lactiferous ducts during the menstrual cycle…true?
    Contains lactiferous ducts in neonates-- T
  9. quest.

    quest. Guest

    Copper containing IUDs:

    F should be changed every year
    F have a high incidence of actinomycoces colonization than plastic devices
    T Cause a relative increased in ectopic pregnancy
    T have been implicated as a cause of fatal infection in pregnancies
    F do not cause menorrhagia

    Comments:
    Inert devices can be left in place until the menopause, but copper devices need renewal every 3-5 years, depending on the make, because of the gradual absorption of copper. Copper IUCDs produce local concentrations of copper salts which apparently give some protection against bacterial contamination. Pelvic infection with actinomyces organisms is most likely with a plastic device that has been in situ for some years. While the rate of intrauterine pregnancy is reduced, that of ectopics is not. Hence, there is a relative increase in ectopic pregnancy after IUCD insertion. If an IUCD is left in place there is a slight risk of intrauterine infection, preterm labour and antepartum haemorrhage, but most pregnancies are uncomplicated and the device is delivered with the placenta. Increased menstrual loss may be caused by increased fibrinolytic activity which occurs round the IUCD. The progestogen intrauterine system (IUS) reduces menstrual flow and often dysmenorrhoea.

    Which of the following is/are true concerning MRI?
    A It involves ionizing radiation (False)
    B Has no recognised side effects on the foetus (True)
    C The pregnant mother should be turned to her left side during scanning
    (True)
    D Tissue with high hydrogen concentrations are difficult to distinguish False)
    E Blood vessels appear white on scanning (False)

    Comments:
    Water is a molecule composed of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The nuclei of the hydrogen atoms are able to act as microscopic compass needles. When the body is exposed to a strong magnetic field, the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms are directed into order - stand "to attention". When submitted to pulses of radio waves, the energy content of the nuclei changes. After the pulse, a resonance wave is emitted when the nuclei return to their previous state. The small differences in the oscillations of the nuclei are detected. By advanced computer processing, it is possible to build up a three-dimensional image that reflects the chemical structure of the tissue, including differences in the water content and in movements of the water molecules. This results in a very detailed image of tissues and organs in the investigated area of the body. In this manner, pathological changes can be documented.

    Many stats about sensitivity, positive predictive value, accuracy, even the linear regression

    Acute UTI in pregnancy
    rarely symptomatic ?F


    Copper IUD mode of action:
    ?T sperm motility
    ?T microthrombi
    ?T intervent ovary movement

    MRI:
    ionising radiation F
    no adverse effect on fetus T
    detect fetal cardiac abn ?F ( it will be very small)

    USG:
    probe: array of magnets? ?F
    doppler to detect fetal heart movement T

    facial hair increased by:
    oestrogen?F
    testerone?T
    spirolactone F ( it is used for treating hirsutism)

    Mycobacteria
    ?T strict ?? *(nor sure which word they use ) aerobic
  10. dr.rough

    dr.rough Guest

    1-SUCCESSFUL LACTATION IS
    a-maintained by estrogen --
    b-maintained by progesterone --
    c-initiated by prolactin surge--
    d-maintained by human placental lactogen
    e-inhibited by dopamine –


    2-THE RELEASE OF CATECHOLAMINES FROM THE ADRENAL MEDULLA INCREASES
    a-during sleep—
    b-when the nerves to adrenal glands are stimulated—
    c-when the blood sugar rises—
    d- immediately following a myocardial infarction—
    e- in the presence of pheochromocytoma—T
    F-DURING ACUTE HAEMORRHAGE—

    3- In the pathogenesis of thrombosis
    a-prostacyclin induces platelet aggregation—
    b-plateletes synthesis thromboxane A2--
    c-thromboxane A2 induces vasoconstriction--
    d-contact with subendothelial collagen causes platelete aggregation--
    e-thrombin inhibits platelete aggregation—


    4- CONVERSION OF GLUCOSE TO LACTIC ACID
    a-occurs in single enzymatic reaction—
    b-is the only pathway for synthesis of ATP in red blood cells—
    C-is a reversible process in skeletal muscle
    d- is inhibited by high cellular conc of ATP-
    e-occurs in skeletal muscle when availability of oxygen is limited-

    5-GLUCOCORTICOIDS
    a- promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis-
    b- suppress uptake of glucose by muscle-
    c—promotes protein breakdown-
    d—promotes fat breakdown-
    e-increase glycolysis in adipose tissue-

    6-Actinomycete israelii

    1-Is a fungus—
    2- forms yellow granules in pus –
    3-is a commensal in mouth--
    4- is a commensal in vagina--
    5- is usually resistant to penicillin—

    7-Following substances increase the serum uric acid concentration(
    a-colchicine--
    b-chlorothiazide--
    c-allopurinol--
    d-probenecid--
    e-phenylbutazone—


    8-. Genes on sex chromosomes are responsible for the inheritance of (
    A. glucose-&pbosphate dehydrogenase defiency.
    B. defective colour vision.—
    C. hairy ear rims. –
    D. homocystinuria.
    E. Hurler syndrome.

    9-in human a haploid no of chromosomes is found in)

    a-red blood cells-
    b-blastocysts-
    c-primary oocytes-.
    d-the first polar body-
    e-spermatozoa-


    10-osteoprosis is associated with
    a-an increase in uncalcified bone matrix(osteoid tissue
    b-prolonged oestrogen therapy—
    c-a normal histological bone structure-
    d-bone fracture—
    e-irregularity of epiphyseal plates—


    11-THE FOLLOWING HAVE an anti-emetic effect
    a-hyoscine bromide—
    b-morphine sulphate—
    c-chlorpropamide--
    d-promethazine hydrochloride—
    e-perphenazine—

    12CLOMIFENE CITRATE
    a- is an antiandrogen—
    b-does not stimulate ovulation directly—
    c-can produce visual disturbances--
    d-is generally prescribed throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle—
    e-in the treatment of anovulation increases the risk of multiple pregnancy—

    13--if a distribution of results is markedly skewed to the left
    a-the mean is same as 50th centile
    b-the same no of values lie on either siDe of the median
    c-the mode is equal to the median-
    d-the students test should be used to compare this distribution with another-
    e-logrithmic transformation of the results will produce a distribution close to normal-

    14. THE FOLLOWING ARE INHERITED AS AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE CONDITIONS

    A. tuberous sclerosis.
    b-phenylketonuria--
    C. ahondroplasia.--
    D. sickle cell anaemia-
    E. Von Giek l disease.—

    15. when a man has hemophilia
    a. 50% of his daughters would not expected to be carriers –
    b. 25% of his sons expected to be carriers
    c. Good medical control of blood definition reduce the risk of this condition in his children
    d. His new born child is likely to require an urgent blood transfusion -
    e. His sister has 50% probability of being a carrier


    16- THE INTERSTITIAL CELL (LEYDIG) OF THE TESTIS
    a--secrete seminal fluid—
    b-are stimulated by LH –
    c-secrete androgen binding protein—
    d-secrete fructose –
    e-produce testosterone T in response to LH --

    17--CONCERNING VIRUSES
    a-the core of every virus contain RNA—
    b-they usually produce intracellelur toxin causing cell death

    c-antibodies are directed against capsular protein—
    d- they can be grown in intact cells--
    e-interferone are synthetic antiviral substances—

    18-THE FOLLOWING ARE CYTOTOXIC ALKYLATING AGENTS(
    a-cyclophosphamide—
    b-mercaptopurine--
    c-chlorambucil--
    d-fluorouracil--
    e-methotrexate-

    19-2,3 DIPHOSPHOGLYCERATE
    a-is present in higher conc in maternal erythrocytes than fetal erythrocytes--
    b-binds more avidly to haemoglobin A than to haemoglobin E—

    c-increases the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen—
    d-is a phospholipid
    e- is synthesised by the pentose phosphate pathway


    20-HYPERKALEMIA IS A CHARACTERSTIC FINDING IN TINDALL
    a-primary aldosteronism
    b-treatment with Spironolactone-
    c-hyperparathyroidism-
    d-ACTH secreting tumours of bronchus-
    e-renal failure-

    21- CONCERNING INHERITABLE DISEASES
    A-huntigdon ,s chorea is transmitted by a dominant gene—
    b-phenylketonuria is transmitted by a recessive gene—
    c-haemophillia ia an autosomal dominant condition--
    d- Von Willebrand disease is a sex linked condition—
    e-cystic fibrosis is transmitted by an x linked recessive gene--


    20-Early blood borne dissemination is a characteristic feature of:
    a) carcinoma of the endometrium –
    b) osteosarcoma –
    c) basal cell carcinoma –
    d) carcinoma of the cervix-
    e) choriocarcinoma-

    22- in tissue pigmentation the following are associated
    a-kernicterus and conjugated billirubin
    b-addison disease and increased cutaneous melanin
    c-melanosis coli and bile pigments-
    d—wilson disease and copper deposition in the cornea-
    e-corpus leuteum and carotenoids-

    23-acquired diverticular disease of the colon
    a-is present in at least 15% of Caucasian over the age of 50 years-
    b-is due to congenital abnormality of the bowel wall
    c-is associated with increased intraluminal pressure—
    d-is associated with muscular thickening—
    e-may result in intestinal obstruction—

    24 stored blood which is to be used for transfusion—
    a-kept at -4 degree
    b-must be used in 1 week –
    c-is tested for compliment content before transfusion --
    d-may be used for platelet replacement –
    e-contains an acid anticoagulant –


    25- in uncomplicated homozygous beta thalasemia there is
    a-hypochromasia--
    b-a reduction in haemoglobin A—
    c-an increase in haemoglobin F—
    d- RED CELL SICKLING
    e-presence of megaloblasts in bone marrow-


    26-The following are capable of cellular regeneration
    a)spinal cord
    b)liver parenchyma –
    c)gut epithelium –
    d)kidney ???
    e)bone marrow—


    27-during the development of female reproductive system
    a-primordial germ cells arise in yolk sac--
    b-ovarian development is dependent upon oestrogen activity--
    c-the paramesonephric duct give rise to the cervix--
    d-the greater vestibular glands arise from the urogenital sinus--
    e-differentiation of external genitalia is dependent upon ovarian activity--


    28- IN CONGENITAL ADRENAL CORTICAL HYPERPLASIA
    a-commonest deficiency is C21
    b- plasma cortisol conc is raised –
    c-there may be excessive secretion of 17 hydroxy progesterone--
    d- sodium retension is characterstic –
    e-blood catecholamine conc are increased –


    29-- SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM
    a- is a snail –
    b- is prevalent in china—
    c- infestation may affect the uterine cervix
    d- give rise to chronic granulomatous lesions--
    e- infestation predisposes to carcinoma—

    30- KETONE BODIES
    .
    a-can be utilised by theadult brain—.
    B-Include acetone -
    c-are water soluble --
    d- are synthesised in skeletal muscles—
    e-can be utilised during starvation—


    31-IRON IONS
    a-diffuse passively into erythropoitic cells-
    b-bind to transferin-
    c-are taken up by hepatocytes-
    d- are necessary for cytochrome synthesis-
    e-are absorbed predominantly by the ileum-

    32--the conjugation of billirubin
    a-takes place in hepatocytes-
    b-is catalysed by UDP glucuronyl transferase-
    c-is inhibited by phenobarbitone-
    d-renders it water soluble-
    e-is impaired in acute billiary obstruction-

    33- in radiotherapy(

    a-1Gray is eq to 1joule per kg
    b- the skin usually recieve a greater dose of radiation than underlying tissue-
    c-the major effect of radiation energy is to damage the cytoplasm of the cell-
    d-cells in tissue which are hypoxic are more vulnerable to radiation-
    e-radiation induced changes in tissues may take 6 weeks to develop-


    34--osteomalacia is characterised by
    a-mineralization of the periostium –
    b-deposition of uncalcifiedbone matrix --
    c-normal osteobastic activity --
    d-increase capillary fragility -
    e-normal calcification of bone—


    35-progesterone
    a-is a C21 compound
    b-synthesised by the ovary before ovulation-
    c-increases ventilation-
    d- raises BMR-
    e-binds to corticotrophin –binding globulin-

    36-EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR
    A- is mitogenic-.
    b- synthesis is stimulated by oestradiol-
    c-is a steroid molecule-F ...
    d- is found in endometrium--
    e- binds to receptor on the nuclear membrane-


    37-the following are structural aberrations of chromosomes:
    a. deletions --
    b. inversions—
    c. aneuploidy –
    d. . polyploidy-
    e translocations—

    38-- Messenger RNA
    a-Synthesis is dependent on RNA polymerase –
    b-is an exact copy of sense DNA—
    c-Contains exons –
    d-Is measured by Western blotting –
    e-translation occurs in the nucleus


    39-- BETA SYMPATHOMIMETIC DRUGS MAY—
    A- caue bronchospasm—
    b-reduce frequency of uterine contraction—
    c-cause heart block—
    d-reduce diastolic blood pressure—
    e- increase blood glucose conc

    40- The following statistical statements are correct-
    a-in the normal distribution,the value of mode is 1.73 times the median –b-in a distribution skew to the right,the mean lies to the left of median-
    c-in the series- 2;7;5;2;3;2;5;8, the mode is 2 -
    d-student’s ‘t’ test is designed to correct for skew distribution –
    e-the chi squared testmay be used when data are not normally distributed--

    41-Contraindicated in breast feeding—

    A-POPs
    B-Bromocriptine-
    C-chloroqunine-
    d-??
    e-warfarine—F

    42-Contraindicated with kidney impairment
    A-Dopamine -
    B-Gentamycine –
    C-Cephahexin
    D-Cis platin

    43- the following are characters of hypoxic cell death:

    A-Apoptosis… --
    B-Phagocytosis—…
    C-Pyknosis… --
    D-Poikilocytosis…
    E-Release of phospholipids—

    44- the following are characters of hypoxic cell death:

    A-Apoptosis… --
    B-endocytosis
    C-Pyknosis… --
    D-Poikilocytosis…
    E-koliosytosis

    45.prostagladins-
    a-lipooxygenase pathway
    b-thromboxane causes vasoconstriction
    c-increased in the myometruim
    d-?
    e-?

    46. linear regression:
    a-starts from the origin
    b-passes thru the mean-
    c-values vary
    d-ranking is done???

    47. following test r used to compare 2 drugs a and b
    a-student t test
    b-meta analysis
    c-wiloxone paired test
    withney u paired test
    e?

    48. toxic shock syndrome
    associated with the use of tampoons
    b-due to toxigenic starinsof strep
    c-infrequently reported outside n america
    d-a consequence of previous antibioitic therapy
    e-confined to seualy active women

    49. the following can regenerate
    a-kidneyepitheluim?
    b-pheriheral axons-
    c-liver parenchyme
    d-bone marrow
    e-bone

    50. radiation sensitive
    a-bone
    b-bone marrow
    c-epith of gut
    d-skin
    e-?

    51. Mycobacteruim
    a- are alchochol acid fast
    b-does not form spores
    c-d-a facultative anaerobes
    d-responsible for leprosy
    e-pathogenic inhumans all strains

    52. the germination of tetanus spores in a wound is inhibited by

    a-tissue trauma
    b-oxygen
    c-inject of toxoid
    d-injection of antitoxin
    e-removal of devitalised tissue

    53. Aldosterone
    a-reduces Na resorption in PCT
    b-reduces Na absorption in descen loop of henle
    c-Increase Na absortion in DCT
    Increase K loss from the tubule
    e increases Na absortion in collecting tubules

    54. the following r conclusive evidence of pregnancy in uterine cureetings???? can, t remmber
    a-decidua compacta-
    b-Arias -stella changes in endometrail glad-
    c-spiral arterioles
    d-plasma cell infiltration
    e chorionic villi

    55. White cell migration from the bld vessels in areas of inflammation involves--- march 1997/2 21
    a-call migration between the endothelial cells
    b-a pssive loss of fluid bld elements
    c-cell migration independeant of endothelial cell motion
    d-initail emigration of polymorhs neutrophils
    e-more polymorphs than monocytes after 2 day=

    56. the vulva is supplied by
    a-ant cutaneu erve of the thigh
    b-femoral br/o genito femoral nerve
    c-?
    d?
    e?

    57. glucocorticoids
    a-promote hepatic gluconeogenesis
    b-suppress uptake of glucose by muscles
    c-promote protein break down
    d-promote fat reakdown
    e-increase glycolysis

    58. halothane 42
    a-cardic arrythmias
    b-explosive mixtures with air
    c-liver damage

    59- U/S:

    A-Pulstile
    B-Increase body temp 1 degree after 15 min scanning..
    C-High frequency penetrates deeper TISSUE,-
    D-Can distinguish between 2 points closer than 0.5 mm
    E-Best echoes are produded by beam at right angle to the structures.

    60-Disinfectant solutions may become contaminated with:
    1-Enterobacter species –
    2-Streptococcus species -
    3-Escherichia coli -
    4-Pseudomonas aeruginosa -
    5-Staphyloccus pyogenes-


    61-Nitric oxide
    a) is synthesised in the endothelium –
    b) has a short half life --
    c) causes smooth muscle contraction
    d) increases during pregnancy -
    e) combines with oxygen to produce L-arginine—
  11. akhil.

    akhil. Guest

    Regarding diagnostic ultrasound:

    A- Is pulsatile ------------------------------------------------------------------T

    B- Is ionising ------------------------------------------------------------------T

    C- Is associated with a 1oC rise in body temperature after 15 mins of scanning -------------------F

    D- High frequency ultrasound has greatest tissue penetration --------------------F

    E- Cavitation is a recognised effect ----------------------------------------------------T

    As a sound beam passes through tissue, some of the energy of this sound wave is absorbed by the tissue. However for low intensities of ultrasound, the heat deposited is quickly dissipated and does not build up. Cavitation is due to the generation, growth, vibration and possible collapse of microbubbles in the tissue. These microbubbles are generated by the ultrasound waves. These bubbles may “move” with the sound beam or some may oscillate so strongly that the bubbles collapse suddenly producing local effects.
  12. adil.

    adil. Guest

    Concerning radiation physics:

    A- An electron has a greater mass than a proton ---------------------------F

    B- A positron has the same charge as an electron -------------------------F

    C- A proton has a positive charge -------------------------------------------T

    D- A neutron has almost the same mass as a proton ---------------------T

    E- The hydrogen nucleus is a neutron ---------------------------------------F



    The atom is composed of a nucleus containing the positively charged protons and neutral neutrons of roughly equal mass orbited by the smaller negatively charged electrons. A positron is an elementary particle of roughly equal size to an electron but positively charged. Hydrogen atomic weight 1 is composed of a proton in its nucleus.
  13. adil.

    adil. Guest

    In experimental conditions, ultrasound may produce biological effects on tissue by the following means:

    A- Acceleration of cell division -----------------------------------------------F

    B- Heat generation ------------------------------------------------------------T

    C- Cavitation ------------------------------------------------------------------T

    D- Duplication of chromosome numbers ------------------------------------F

    E- Microstreaming -------------------------------------------------------------T


    There are two principle bioeffects of ultrasound: Thermal and mechanical. Thermal is created through the impact of acoustic energy upon tissue. Mechanical bioeffects include cavitation through particulate streaming associated with the violent agitation of particles within the medium.
  14. adil.

    adil. Guest

    In experimental conditions, ultrasound may produce biological effects on tissue by the following means:

    A- Acceleration of cell division -----------------------------------------------F

    B- Heat generation ------------------------------------------------------------T

    C- Cavitation ------------------------------------------------------------------T

    D- Duplication of chromosome numbers ------------------------------------F

    E- Microstreaming -------------------------------------------------------------T


    There are two principle bioeffects of ultrasound: Thermal and mechanical. Thermal is created through the impact of acoustic energy upon tissue. Mechanical bioeffects include cavitation through particulate streaming associated with the violent agitation of particles within the medium.
  15. adil.

    adil. Guest

    A 30-year-old female undergoes a Chest and abdominal X-ray arranged by her GP and does not realise that she is 7 weeks pregnant. Increased risk to which of the following are found in those children exposed in utero to such X irradiation

    A- Acute lymphoblastic Leukaemia ------------------------------------------T

    B- Intra-uterine growth retardation -----------------------------------------F

    C- Mental retardation -------------------------------------------------------F

    D- Diabetes -------------------------------------------------------------------F

    E- Cerebral gliomas ---------------------------------------------------------T




    It should be appreciated that the risks to the fetus are small following exposure to chest X-rays but the far more with direct exposure following abdominal exposure. Generally there is an increased risk of childhood leukaemias and cancers. There appears to be no evidence for IUGR, diabetes nor mental retardation - although IQ on a population basis is significantly lower.
  16. aamir.

    aamir. Guest

    MEASURING MATERNAL MORTALITY

    The death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. This definition allows identification of maternal deaths, based on their causes as either direct or indirect.
    Direct obstetric deaths are those resulting from obstetric complications of the pregnant state (pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum), from interventions, omissions, incorrect treatment, or from a chain of events resulting from any of the above. Deaths due to, for example, haemorrhage, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia or those due to complications of Anaesthesia or caesarean section are classified as direct obstetric deaths. Indirect obstetric deaths are those resulting from previous existing disease, or diseases that developed during pregnancy, and which were not due to direct obstetric causes but aggravated by physiological effects of pregnancy. For example, deaths due to aggravation of an existing cardiac or renal disease are indirect obstetric deaths.


    Pregnancy-related death The death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the cause of death.

    Late maternal death The death of a woman from direct or indirect obstetric causes, more than 42 days but less than one year after termination of pregnancy.

    Statistical measures of maternal mortality :
    Maternal mortality ratio Number of maternal deaths during a given time period per 100 000 live births during the same time-period.

    Maternal mortality rate Number of maternal deaths in a given period per 100 000 women of reproductive age during the same time-period.

    Adult lifetime risk of maternal death The probability of dying from a
    maternal cause during a woman’s reproductive lifespan.

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