MOST IMP. TOPICS FOR DNB

Discussion in 'DNB CET board - DipNB' started by samuel, Aug 22, 2014.

  1. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Please remember these four points on Phaeochromocytoma.
    1)Investigation of choice for adrenal phaeochromocytoma-MRI
    2)Investigation of choice for extra-adrenal phaeochromocytoma-DOPA PET> MIBG scan
    3)Most sensitive biochemical test for phaeochromocytoma-plasma metanephrine
    4)Most specific biochemical test for phaeochromocytoma - urinary metanephrine
  2. samuel

    samuel New Member

    How to identify a Lymphoid neoplasm is B cell or T cell in origin by seeing its name? Remembering names of all the B cell lymphomas by heart is difficult...So,try the other way:
    Most of the T cell lymphoid neoplasms will have "T" within the name itself...Examples are;
    1)T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia
    2)Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified
    3)Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma
    4)Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma
    5)Panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma
    6)Hepatosplenic γδ T-cell lymphoma
    7)Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma
    8) Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma

    There are 3 exceptions..T cell lymphoid neoplasms that do not contain "T"
    1)Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma
    2)Large granular lymphocytic leukemia
    3)Mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome

    So,the rest all are B cell lymphomas
  3. samuel

    samuel New Member

    CONTROVERSY KILLER:Ideal time for surgery for
    a)undescended testis-1year>6months
    b)b/l undescended testis-6 months
    c)cleft lip-3-6 months
    d))cleft palate-9-18 months
  4. samuel

    samuel New Member

    HEALTH COMMITTEES

    1.BHORE(1946)-
    Integration of preventive & curative services,
    Primary health Centre- PHC per 40,000 population,
    3 million plan, Social physician-3 month training.

    2.MUDALIAR- Health survey and planning committee,
    All India Health Services.

    3.CHADAH- Multipurpose Health Worker(1 per 10,000),
    Vigilance in malaria programmes,
    Combined Malaria & family planning.

    4.MUKERJI 1st- Separate staff for family planning,
    5.MUKERJI 2nd- Basic health services,
    To examine National Health Programmes

    6.JUNGALWALLA- Integration of health services,
    Seniority,No private practice,Equal pay for equal work,
    Importance of extra qualifications.

    7.KARTAR-
    Multi purpose wokers and Female health worker(which replaced ANMs),
    1 PHC per 50,000 population,divided into 16 subcentres.

    8.SHRIVASTAV-
    Referral services complex,
    “ROME scheme”-Reorientation of medical education,
    Rural health services,
    Two cadres of health workers-MHW,HA.

    9.KRISHNAN- Urban health.

    10.BAJAJ- Health manpower.
  5. samuel

    samuel New Member

    GOODPASTURE SYNDROME

    1.Triad of Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage+rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis+anti-GBM antibodies(90%cases).

    2.Type 2 hypersensitivity,HLA-DR2.
    3.Antibody against - alpha-3 NC1 domain of collagen IV(Chromosome 2).
    1/3rd patients with anti-GBM glomerulonephritis have no evidence
    of lung injury.
    4.C/F-hemoptysis,dyspnea,anemia,fever,hematuria.
    5.Xray- Diffuse alveolar damage,B/L Infiltrates.
    6.Gold standard – Biopsy-Focal/segmental necrosis,Crescent formation in Bowman’s space
    7.Immunoflourescence- Linear IgG and C3,
    10-15% cases P-ANCA positive.Normal complements.

    8,The diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide is markedly increased.
    Poor Prognosis – (a)>50%crescents on biopsy,(b)serum Creatinine>5-6mg/dl(c)Oliguria.

    9.TT-8-10 treatments of Plasmapheresis+oral prednisolone and cyclophosphamide in first 2 wks

    10.After tt Antibodies should fall in 6 months
  6. samuel

    samuel New Member

    doc htn emergency. ....in preg.......hydralazine



    All r true abt letting gene except
    Increase appetite
    Inc. In obesity
    Max. In hypothalamus
    Expressed only in adipose tissue
    RMP is determined by
    Na
    K
    Mg
    Cl
  7. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Vestibular sensory organ present in ampulla of inner ear is at
    Macula
    Cupula
    Crista
    Statoconia
  8. samuel

    samuel New Member

    The following is the first phenotypic expression of hereditary hemochromatosis
    A. Post prandial increase in fe
    B. Increased s.ferritin
    C. Increase in transferrin saturation
    D. Slate like skin pigmentation
    Ans : a
  9. samuel

    samuel New Member

    RMP is mainly determined by effluent of k ions
    RMP in
    skeletal & cardiac muscle -90 mv,
    Smooth muscle -50 mv,
    SA node -60 mv,
    Nerve finer layer -70mv
  10. samuel

    samuel New Member

    pERIPHERAL SIGNS OF AORTIC REGURGITATION

    *Water- Hammer pulse
    *de Musset's sign- head nodding with each pulse
    *Quincke's sign- capillary pulsation in nail beds
    *Duroziez's sign-systoli murmer on compressing femoral artery proximally and diastolic murmer on compressing femoral artery distally
    *corrigan's sign-dancing carotids
    *Locomotor brachii
    *Landolfi's sign-change in pupillary size in accordance with cardiac cycle and not related to light
    *Becker's sign-retinal artery pulsations
    *Muller's sign-systolic pulsations of uvula
    *Rosenbach's sign-pulsations over the liver
    *Gerhardt's sign-pulsations over enlarged spleen
    *bisferiens pulse
    *Hill's sign-popliteal cuff systolic pressure exceeds brachial cuff pressure by >20 mmHg
  11. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Ace inhibitors side effects mnemonics
    CAPTOPRIL
    C COUGH
    A ANGIOEDEMA
    P PROTEIN UREA
    O ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION
    P PREGNANCY CONTRAINDCTED
    R RENAL FAILURE CONTRAINDCTED
    I INDOMETHACIN INHIBITION
    L LEUKOPENIA
  12. samuel

    samuel New Member

    1. Omphalitis -> Lekocyte Adhesion Deficiency (CD 18 deficiency in integrins)

    2. Gigantic Granules in Neutrophils -> Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (microtubules disorder-> no degranulation bc of failure of phagolysosomes formation)

    3. Recurrent Candida albicans Infections -> Myeloperoxidase Deficiency (immunodeficiency)

    4. Nitroblue Tetrazolium test NEGATIVE (yellow=abnormal=negative test) -> Chronic Granulomatous Disease (NADPH oxidase deficiency, no respiratory burst, catalase+ recurrent infections)
  13. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Atherosclerosis- Crappy Plaque In Circles

    according to Uworld: most commonly involved vessels in decreasing order is

    A bdominal Aorta (esp around ostia- openings of major branches)
    C oronary Artery
    P opliteal Artery
    In ternal Carotid (esp. at carotid sinus)
    Circle of Willis

    * In can remind you its the intima involved

    * Crappy could be replaced by Cholesterol to remind you of cholesterol crystals

    *Circles could be replaced by Circular vessels if you want it to make more sense
  14. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome

    * Autosomal dominant.

    * Li-Fraumeni syndrome is characterized by:

    wide variety of cancer types.
    young age at onset of malignancies.
    potential for multiple primary sites of cancer.

    * The following 3 criteria must be met for a diagnosis

    A proband diagnosed with sarcoma when younger than 45 years
    A first-degree relative with any cancer diagnosed when younger than 45 years
    Another first-degree or second-degree relative of the same genetic lineage with any cancer diagnosed when younger than 45 years or sarcoma diagnosed at any age

    * Wide range of malignancies, with particularly high occurrences of breast cancer, brain tumors,acute leukemia, soft tissue sarcomas, bone sarcomas, and adrenal cortical carcinoma. l
  15. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Most Common facts about infectious diseases
    1. Most common cause of septic arthritis in a person less than 40 years old = Gonococcus

    2. Most common cause of osteomyelitis in general population = S. aureus

    3. Most common cause of osteomyelitis in Sickle Cell patients = Salmonella

    4. Most common cause of osteomyelitis due to nail-puncture wounds = Pseudomonas (V.Imp!)

    5. Most common parasitic infection of the brain = Neurocysticercosis
  16. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Asteroid bodies - Sporotrichosis
    2) Councillman bodies - Yellow fever
    3) Torries bodies - Yellow fever
    4) Leishmans Donovans bodies - Kala Azar
    5) Halbersteadter-Prowazeke's bodies - Trachoma
    6) Miyagava's bodies - Lymphogranuloma venereum
    7) Levinthal-Cole-Lillie bodies - Psittacosis
    8) Negri bodies(intracytoplasmic,intraneuron,hippocamp
    us) - Rabies
    9) Guarnieri's bodies - Vaccinia (intracytoplasmic)
    10) Bollinger's bodies - Fowl pox (inrtacytoplasmic)
    11) Henderson-Peterson's bodies - Mollascum
    cantagiosum
    12) Cowdry type-A bodies - Yellow fever, Herpus virus
    infection
    13) Cowdry type-B bodies - Adenovirus, Poliovirus(code-
    BAP)
    14) Aschoff's bodies - Rheumatic fever
    15) Rusell's bodies - Multiple myeloma
    16) Schauman's/Conchoid bodies(calcium & iron
    complexes) - Sarcoidosis & Beryliosis
    17) Asteroid bodies(eosinophilic inclusions) - Sarcoidosis
    18) Call-Exner bodies - Granulosa cell tumour of ovary
    19) Verrocy bodies - Neurilemmoma
    20) Civette(colloid) bodies - Lichen planus
    21) Michelis-Guttmann's bodies - Malakoplakia
    22) Lewy bodies - Parkinson's disease
    23) Lafora bodies - Familial myoclonus
    24) Hirano bodies - Alzhemer's disease
    25) Weibel-Palade bodies - storage organeles of
    vonWillebrands factor in platelets & endothelium
    26) Papperheimer bodies - nonheame iron pigments in
    siderocytes
    27) Howell-Jelly bodies - spleenectomy , Megaloblastic
    Anaemia, Hemolytic anaemia
    28) Hectoid bodies - Sickle cell anemia
    29) Heinz bodies - thalasemia
    30) Dohle bodies - cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in
    neutrophils seen in bacterial infection
    31) Histocytosis-X(HX)(Birbeck's granules) -
    Histocytosis-X
    32) Gamma-Gandy bodies - Congestive spleenomegaly
    33) Mallory's bodies - hyaline inclusions in heapato cytes
    seen in alcoholic, indian childhood cirrhosis etc...
    34) Apoptotic bodies - membrane bound spherical
    sturctures in Apoptosis
    35) Psammoma bodies - dystrophic calcification in
    meningioma, papillary serous cystadenoma of ovary &
    papillary carcinoma of thyroid, papillry type of RCC.
    36) LE bodies (haematoxylin bodies) - SLE
    37) Dumbell shaped Asbestos bodies - asbestos fibres
    coated with glycoprotien & hemosiderin. stained with
    Prussian blue stain
    38) Luys body - subthalamic nucleus
    39 )Davidson's body - sex chromatin in neutrophils
    (dumbell shaped)
    40) Herring bodies - pars nervosa of pituitary gland
    41) Donovan body - Granuloma inguinale
    42) Nissels bodies - cytoplasmic inclusions in neurons
    43) Mooser's bodies - Typhus fever
    44) Lipschutz' bodies - intra nuclear inclusions in herpes
    simplex infection
    45) Zebra bodies - cytoplsmic inclusions in schwaan cell
    degeneration
    46) Babes-Ernest metachromatic granules - Diphtheria
    47 )Reilly's bodies - Hurler's syndrome
    48) Gamma-Favre bodies - LGV
    49) Winkler's & Ross's bodies - Syphilis
    50) Sandstrom's bodies - Parathyroid gland
    51. COUNCILLMAN BODIES = HEP B ( dying hepatocytes )
    52. FERUGINOUS BODIES = ASBESTOSIS
    53. HEINZ BODIES = G6PD DEF
    54. PICK BODIES = PICKS D/S
    55. CREOLA BODIES = ASTHMA
    56. ODLAND BODIES = KERATINOSOME
    57. RUSHTON BODIES = ODONTOGENIC CYSTS
    58. ZEBRA BODIES = METACHROMATIC LEUKODYSTROPHY ,
    NEIMANN PICK'S DISEASE.
    59. BRACHY WACHTER BODIES = INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS
    60. GLOBOID BODIES = KRABBES DISEASE
    61. ALDER - REILLY BODIES = coarse azurophilic granules
    in the leukocytes in ALDER - REILLY SYNDROME.
    62. BODIES OF ARANTIUS = aortic valve nodules
    63. VEROCAY BODIES = schwaanoma
    64. BALBIANI'S BODIES = yolk nucleus
    65. BAMBOO BODIES = asbestos bodies
    66. BRASSY BODY = dark shrunken blood corpuscle found
    in MALARIA
    67. COCCOID X BODIES = psittacosis
    68. CYTOID BODIES = in degenerated retinal.N
    fibres..seen in cotton wool spots
    69. HARTING BODIES = calcospheritis in the cerebral
    capillaries
    70. BODY OF HIGHMORE = mediastinum testis
    71. MASSON BODIES = rheumatic pneumonia
    72. MOTT BODIES = multiple myeloma
    73. DONNES BODIES = colostrum corpuscles
    74. OKEN'S BODY = mesonephros
    75. PASCHEN BODIES = variola or vaccinia
    76. SCHILLER DUVAL'S BODIES = ENDODERMAL SINUS
    TUMOUR
    77. RESIDUAL BODIES = SARCOID AND SARCOID LIKE
    GRANULOMAS
    78. body of HIGHMORE = medullary carinoma of testis
    79. ODLAND bodies = flegel disease (i.e hyperkeratosis
    lenticularis perstans)
  17. samuel

    samuel New Member

    pERIPHERAL SIGNS OF AORTIC REGURGITATION

    *Water- Hammer pulse
    *de Musset's sign- head nodding with each pulse
    *Quincke's sign- capillary pulsation in nail beds
    *Duroziez's sign-systoli murmer on compressing femoral artery proximally and diastolic murmer on compressing femoral artery distally
    *corrigan's sign-dancing carotids
    *Locomotor brachii
    *Landolfi's sign-change in pupillary size in accordance with cardiac cycle and not related to light
    *Becker's sign-retinal artery pulsations
    *Muller's sign-systolic pulsations of uvula
    *Rosenbach's sign-pulsations over the liver
    *Gerhardt's sign-pulsations over enlarged spleen
    *bisferiens pulse
    *Hill's sign-popliteal cuff systolic pressure exceeds brachial cuff pressure by >20 mmHg
  18. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Ovarian Neoplasms

    SURFACE EPITHELIAL CELLS

    20 plus years. These are the most frequent, and most of them are malignant.
    CYSTADENOMA: most common benign tumor, could be mucinous, could be serous.
    CYSTADENOCARCINOMA: malignant, bad prognosis, BRCA-1, CA-125, Psammoma bodies.
    ENDOMETROID TUMOR
    CLEAR CELL TUMOR
    BRENNER TUMOR
    CYSTADENOFIBROMA

    GERM CELL

    0-25plus years
    TERATOMA: 3 cell germ layers, ectoderm (hair), endoderm (teeth, cartilage) and mesoderm (thyroid, bronchial tissue); benign 95%, SCC 1%, stroma ovarii mostly thyroid tisuue
    DYSGERMINOMA: like seminoma, malignant but radiosensitive, RF: Turner Sd and pseudohermaphroditism.
    YOLK SAC TUMOR (ENDODERMAL SINUS TUMOR)
    CHORIOCARCINOMA

    SEX CORD-STROMA

    All ages
    FIBROMA: most common of this type. Meigs Sd: ovaric fibroma, ascitis, pleural effusion.
    GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR: potentially malignant, ESTROGEN producer, Call-Exner cells (malignant follicle like structures). Children with precocious puberty, teenagers and young adults with irregular menses, postmenopausal women with vaginal bleeding,
    LEYDIG-SERTOLI CELLS TUMOR: ANDROGEN producer, virilization and female psuedohermaphroditism
  19. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Chromosome 1: Rh system / neuroblastoma
    Chromosome 2: Cystinuria/hypobetalipoproteinemia
    Chromosome 3: RCC/ALKAPTONURIA
    Chromosome 4: Huntingtons chorea/achondroplasia/parkinsons disease
    Chromosome 5: FAP/colorectal carcinoma/cri-du-chat syndrome
    Chromosome 6: HLA system(short arm) /MHA antigen/DM
    Chromosome 7: Cystic fibrosis
    Chromosome 8: Osteoporosis
    Chromosome 9: ABO blood group / friedreich’s ataxia
    Chromosome 10: Apert syndrome Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 4 Cockayne syndrome congenital erythropoietic porphyria Cowden syndrome Crouzon syndrome Hirschprung disease multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 Pfeiffer syndrome porphyri Usher syndrome Usher syndrome type I Wolman syndrome
    Chromosome 11: Sickle cell anaemia/beta thallasemia/wilms tumour/MEN -1/ataxia telengiectasia/human insulin gene/PTH gene
    Chromosome 12: PKU/vWF/CA testes
    Chromosome 13: Retinoblastoma/osteosarcoma/wilsons ds
    Chromosome 14: Familial HOCM/ alpha 1 antitripsin deficiency
    Chromosome 15: Marfan’s syndrome/albinism/pradder willi syndrome/angelman syndrome
    Chromosome 16: Alpha thallasemia/adult PKD
    chromosome 17: Carninoma breast(BRCA1)/medulloblastoma/neurofibromatosis-1/ovarian tumour/ P 53 gene
    Chromosome 18: Erythropoietic protoporphyria hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia Niemann-Pick disease/Type C porphyria Selective Mutism Edwards syndrome (Trisomy 18)
    Chromosome 19: Myotonia dystrophica/gene for insulin receptor
    Chromosome 20: MODY type 1 DM/prions disease
    Chromosome 21: Homocystinuria/amyloidosis…folic acid transport..
    Chromosome 22: Meningioma/acoustic neuroma/NF -2/Di-George syndrome
    Chromosome Xq: Gene for androgen insensitivity syndrome/ fragile X syndrome/ Testicular feminisation/ X-SCID/ X linked agaamaglobulinemia/ Fabry ds/ Lesch- Nyhan/ Hemophilia B/ Hemophilia A/ Hunter syndrome/ G6PD deficiency
    Chromosome Xp – Ocular albinism/ Chr Granulomatous Ds/ DMD/ Menkes syndrome
  20. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Cluster headache

    severe unilateral pain, often orbital
    lacrimation, red eye, nasal congestion + rhinorrhoea
    occasionally ptosis + horner’s syndrome
    1 or more per day, for several weeks, then subside before recurring
    patient is restless, affects men>women (6x), alcohol may be trigger
    Acute —> 100% oxygen, sumatriptan
    Long term —> verapamil, lithium
  21. samuel

    samuel New Member

    ACE Inhibitors :: Contraindications
    >>>>>>>> PARK <<<<<<<<

    P = Pregnancy
    A = Allergy
    R = Renal artery stenosis
    K = K increase (hyperkalemia)
  22. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Broncopneumonia

    Consolidation centered around brochioles
    Bilateral, multilobar, basilar (most severe in bases)
    Staphylococci, Streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomona aeruginosa
  23. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Cystic Fibrosis

    Autosomal Recessive
    Mutation of CFTR chloride channel gene (chromosome 7)
    MC mutation: deletion of F508 (Phenilalanine at position 508) interferes with proper protein folding,
  24. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Lobar Pneumonia

    Entire lobe, Streptococcus pneumoniae (95%) & Klebsiella, 4 phases:
    Congestion: hyperemia, edema
    Red Hepatization: PMN & hemorrage
    Grey Hepatization: degradation of RBC
    Resolution: healing
  25. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Types of Atelectasis

    Obstruction: resorption of air (distal)
    Compression: something in pleural space
    Contraction: scar
    Patchy: lack of surfactant
  26. samuel

    samuel New Member

    some points on Stromal corneal dystrophies

    These occur bilaterally around puberty. They are of obscure origin involving the central area of the cornea.

    1.granular corneal dystrophy (nodular or granular dystrophy of Groe- nouw) , in which the heredity is autosomal dominant, the opacities formed due to the abnormal accumulation of hyaline protein..

    2.A lattice form, also with an autosomal dom inant heredity.Histological section stained with Congo red shows amyloid deposition in the stroma.

    3.A macular form has a recessive heredity and in it the visual acuity tends to be affected at an early age.Histological section stained with colloidal iron shows deposits of mucopolysaccharide glycosaminoglycans in the stroma
  27. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Pseudotumor cerebri caused by -
    - Tetracycline
    - Hypervitaminosis A
    - OCPs
    - Glucocorticoids
    - Amiodarone
    - Nalidixic acid.
  28. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with “painful bones, renal stones, abdominal groans, and psychic moans.”
    The most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism is a solitary parathyroid adenoma arising in the sporadic (nonfamilial) setting (AIPG/AIIMS question)
    Regarding parathyroid carcinomas- there is general agreement that a diagnosis of carcinoma based on cytologic detail is unreliable, and invasion of surrounding tissues and metastasis are the only reliable criteria.
    Another tumor for which metastasis is the only reliable indicator of malignancy is Phaeochromocytoma..
  29. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Amantadine: livedo reticularis
    Minoxidil: hypertricosis
    Nitroprusside: cyanide poisoning
    Chloramphenicol: gray baby sd.
    Vancomycin: red man
    Amiodarone: smurf skin
  30. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Acute Alcohol Withdrawal

    can begin 10-72hrs after last drink
    Symptoms - agitation, tremor, sweating, hallucinations
    Signs - tachycardia, hypotension, confusion, fits
    'delerium tremens' - acute confusional state, classically visual/tactile hallucinations
    Management - chlordiazepoxide (reducing dose over 5-7d), high dose parental B vitamins e.g. pabrinex , correct any dehydration
  31. samuel

    samuel New Member

    BRAIN TUMOUR

    1) most common type of brain tumor--- METASTASES ( mc from lung cancers)
    2) most common type of primary brain tumor in adults.
    GLIOMAS > MENINGIOMAS > ASTROCYTOMAS
    3) most common malignant primary brain tumor of adults – GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME
    4) most common primary brain tumor of childhood----PILOCYTIC ASTROCYTOMA (=CEREBELLAR ASTROCYTOMA)
    5) most common malignant primary brain tumor of childhood--- MEDULLOBLASTOMAS
  32. samuel

    samuel New Member

    1.Halls criteria : Downs
    syndrome
    2.Dukes criteria:
    Endocarditis/Heart failure
    3.Butchers
    criteria :mesothelioma
    4.Ann Arbours
    classifiacation:Hodgki.s
    lymphoma
    5.Bismuth classification:
    tumors of hepatic ductal
    system
    6.Nazers Index: Wilsons
    disz
    7.Pagets Index : Abruptio
    placentae
    8.Quetlet index: BMI -wt
    in kg/ht in meter square
    9.Ponderial Index: ht in
    cm/cube root of body wt
    in kgs
    10.Brocas index : Ht in
    cms-100
    11.Corpulence index :
    Actual wt/desired wt
    12.Milans crjteria: for liver
    transplant in HCC
    13.Mayers n cottons
    grading system: Subglottic
    stenosis
    14.Spaldings criteria:
    abdominal pregnancy
    15.GCS/Ransons criteria/
    APACHE score:
    Pancreatitis
    16.Ennekings staging :
    Bone tumors
    17.Mc Donald's criteria:
    Multiple Sclerosis
    18.Epworths criteria :
    Sleep apnea
    19.Framminghams
    criteria/Boston's criteria:
    CHF
    20.Durie salmon system of
    staging: Multiple myeloma
    21.Lights criteria: pleural
    effusion
    22.GOLD's criteria :COPD
    23.OKUDA staging : HCC
  33. samuel

    samuel New Member

    1.Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is the MC medical cause of daytime sleepiness.
    Apnea is breathing pause lasting ≥ 10 s & hypopnea as event ≥10 s in which there is continued breathing but ventilation reduced by at least 50%.

    2.OSAHS-unexplained excessive daytime sleepiness with at least 5 apnea or hypopnea per hour of sleep.AHI(Apnea Hypopnea index) of 5-15 is mild; 15-30 is moderate and more than 30 events per hour is severe sleep apnea.

    3.OSAHS increases risk of MI by 20% & of stroke by 40%,also associated with insulin resistance and increased mean BP.

    4.Epworth Sleepiness Score>11 need treatment for OSA

    5.Dx-Polysomnography(12 channels requiring a minimum of 22 wire attachments)

    6.Treatment- Always exclude Hypothyroidism and acromegaly first.
    CPAP is the treatment of choice.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) works by blowing the airway open during sleep with pressures of 5–20 mmHg. Mandibular Repositioning Splint (MRS),also called oral devices, are second line in cases of failed CPAP

    7.surgery might have a role-Bariatric,Tonsillectomy,Tracheostomy,uvulopalatopharyngoplasty,radiofrequency ablation of soft palate tissues and jaw advancement Surgery.

    8.Only drug approved by FDA for use in OSA for daytime sleepiness despite CPAP- Modafinil.Armodafinil also FDA approved is the R-enantiomer of modafinil.
  34. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Chromosome 1: Rh system / neuroblastoma
    Chromosome 2: Cystinuria/hypobetalipoproteinemia
    Chromosome 3: RCC/ALKAPTONURIA
    Chromosome 4: Huntingtons chorea/achondroplasia/parkinsons disease
    Chromosome 5: FAP/colorectal carcinoma/cri-du-chat syndrome
  35. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Lower limb traumatology
    Waddell's traid-
    # femur
    Intra abdominal or intra thoracic injury
    Head injury

    Order of Shortening
    Posterior dislocation of hip># shaft femur># subtrochantric femur> inter trochantric femur> # neck femur

    The classical triad of fat embolism
    1 respiratory symptoms- dyspnea or tachypnea
    2 neurological symptoms- confusion or disorientation
    3 petechial rash- in axilla neck peri umbillical area conjunctiva etc


    Diagnostic criteria in Fat Embolism

    Gurd's major criteria
    1 axillary or subconjunctival petechiae.
    2 paco2 <60 mm of hg
    3 cns depression
    4 pulmonary oedema
    Gurd's minor criteria
    Tachycardia
    Fever
    Anemia
    Thrombocytopenia
    Fat globules in sputum
    In urine(gurd test)
    Incresing esr
    Retinal emboli

    1 major+4 minor


    Pott's # is bimalleolar # and cotton's # is trimalleolar #
  36. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Chromosome 5: FAP/colorectal carcinoma/cri-du-chat syndrome
    Chromosome 6: HLA system(short arm) /MHA antigen/DM
    Chromosome 7: Cystic fibrosis
    Chromosome 8: Osteoporosis
  37. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Chromosome 9: ABO blood group / friedreich’s ataxia
    Chromosome 10: Apert syndrome Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 4 Cockayne syndrome congenital erythropoietic porphyria Cowden syndrome Crouzon syndrome Hirschprung disease multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 Pfeiffer syndrome porphyri Usher syndrome Usher syndrome type I Wolman syndrome
    Chromosome 11: Sickle cell anaemia/beta thallasemia/wilms tumour/MEN -1/ataxia telengiectasia/human insulin gene/PTH gene
    Chromosome 12: PKU/vWF/CA testes
  38. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Chromosome 13: Retinoblastoma/osteosarcoma/wilsons ds
    Chromosome 14: Familial HOCM/ alpha 1 antitripsin deficiency
    Chromosome 15: Marfan’s syndrome/albinism/pradder willi syndrome/angelman syndrome
    Chromosome 16: Alpha thallasemia/adult PKD
    chromosome 17: Carninoma breast(BRCA1)/medulloblastoma/neurofibromatosis-1/ovarian tumour/ P 53 gene
  39. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Chromosome 18: Erythropoietic protoporphyria hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia Niemann-Pick disease/Type C porphyria Selective Mutism Edwards syndrome (Trisomy 18)
    Chromosome 19: Myotonia dystrophica/gene for insulin receptor
    Chromosome 20: MODY type 1 DM/prions disease
    Chromosome 21: Homocystinuria/amyloidosis…folic acid transport..
    Chromosome 22: Meningioma/acoustic neuroma/NF -2/Di-George syndrome
  40. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Chromosome Xq: Gene for androgen insensitivity syndrome/ fragile X syndrome/ Testicular feminisation/ X-SCID/ X linked agaamaglobulinemia/ Fabry ds/ Lesch- Nyhan/ Hemophilia B/ Hemophilia A/ Hunter syndrome/ G6PD deficiency
    Chromosome Xp – Ocular albinism/ Chr Granulomatous Ds/ DMD/ Menkes syndrome
  41. samuel

    samuel New Member

    ig that crosses the placenta ?
    Answer: Ig G .
    2. Ig present in milk ?
    Answer: Ig G and Ig A
    3. Ig in seromucinous glands ?
    Answer: Ig G and Ig A
    4. Ig in primary immune response ?
    Answer: Ig M
  42. samuel

    samuel New Member

    5. Ig in secondary immune response ?
    Answer: Ig G
    6. Ig with maximum molecular weight ?
    Answer: Ig M
    7. Ig with maximum sedimentation rate ?
    Answer: Ig M
    8. Ig with minimum sedimentation
    coefficient ?
    Answer: Ig G
  43. samuel

    samuel New Member

    7. Ig with maximum sedimentation rate ?
    Answer: Ig M
    8. Ig with minimum sedimentation
    coefficient ?
    Answer: Ig G
    9. Blood group antibodies belong to
    which type of immunoglobulins ?
    answer: Ig M
    10. Rheumatoid factor belongs to which
    type of immunoglobulins ?
    answer: Ig M ( antibody against Fc
    fragment of Ig G )
  44. samuel

    samuel New Member

    11. Immunoglobulin that is heat labile ?
    answer: Ig E .
    12. Immunoglobulin mediating the
    prausnitz kustner reaction ?
    Answer: Ig E
  45. samuel

    samuel New Member

    1.Halls criteria : Downs
    syndrome
    2.Dukes criteria:
    Endocarditis/Heart failure
    3.Butchers
    criteria :mesothelioma
    4.Ann Arbours
    classifiacation:Hodgki.s
    lymphoma
  46. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Storage of sperms -Epididymis
    Spermatogenesis-Semineferous tubules
    Capacitation of sperms -Female genital tract
    Fertilization -Apulia of FT
    Durationof transfer of Ovum to uterus take place in -3days
    Implantation duration -5 to 7 days
    Zona pellucida- covering of morulla, glyco protein , disappear on 4th day
    Polar bodies forms during ogenesis is not Spermatogenesis
    Before 4 month of IU life umbilicus has 2 A and 2 V but after 4 month 2 V of which Right is disappear and Left is Left
  47. samuel

    samuel New Member

    5.Bismuth classification:
    tumors of hepatic ductal
    system
    6.Nazers Index: Wilsons
    disz
    7.Pagets Index : Abruptio
    placentae

    8.Quetlet index: BMI -wt
    in kg/ht in meter square
    9.Ponderial Index: ht in
    cm/cube root of body wt
    in kgs
    10.Brocas index : Ht in
    cms-100
  48. samuel

    samuel New Member

    11.Corpulence index :
    Actual wt/desired wt
    12.Milans crjteria: for liver
    transplant in HCC
    13.Mayers n cottons
    grading system: Subglottic
    stenosis
  49. samuel

    samuel New Member

    14.Spaldings criteria:
    abdominal pregnancy

    15.GCS/Ransons criteria/
    APACHE score:
    Pancreatitis
    16.Ennekings staging :
    Bone tumors
    17.Mc Donald's criteria:
    Multiple Sclerosis
  50. samuel

    samuel New Member

    18.Epworths criteria :
    Sleep apnea
    19.Framminghams
    criteria/Boston's criteria:
    CHF
    20.Durie salmon system of
    staging: Multiple myeloma
    21.Lights criteria: pleural
    effusion
    22.GOLD's criteria :COPD
    23.OKUDA staging : HCC

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