My mnemonics n' tricks..!

Discussion in 'NEET 2013 All india Exam' started by samuel, Aug 27, 2014.

  1. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Depression: 5 drugs causing it PROMS:
    Propranolol
    Reserpine
    Oral contraceptives
    Methyldopa
    Steroids
  2. samuel

    samuel New Member

    TB: antibiotics used STRIPE:
    STreptomycin
    Rifampicin
    Isoniazid
    Pyrizinamide
    Ethambutol
  3. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Propythiouracil (PTU): mechanism It inhibits PTU:
    Peroxidase/ Peripheral deiodination
    Tyrosine iodination
    Union (coupling)
  4. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Enoxaprin (prototype low molecular weight heparin): action,
    monitoring EnoXaprin only acts on factor Xa.
    Monitor Xaconcentration, rather than APTT.


    Beta-blockers: nonselective beta-blockers "Tim Pinches
    His Nasal Problem" (because he has a runny nose...):
    Timolol
    Pindolol
    Hismolol
    Naldolol
    Propranolol
  5. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Nicotinic effects MTWTF (days of week):
    Mydriasis/ Muscle cramps
    Tachycardia
    Weakness
    Twitching
    Hypertension/ Hyperglycemia
    Fasiculation
  6. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Muscarinic effects SLUG BAM:
    Salivation/ Secretions/ Sweating
    Lacrimation
    Urination
    Gastrointestinal upset
    Bradycardia/ Bronchoconstriction/ Bowel movement
    Abdominal cramps/ Anorexia
    Miosis
  7. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Phenytoin: adverse effects PHENYTOIN:
    P-450 interactions
    Hirsutism
    Enlarged gums
    Nystagmus
    Yellow-browning of skin
    Teratogenicity
    Osteomalacia
    Interference with B12 metabolism (hence anemia)
    Neuropathies: vertigo, ataxia, headache
  8. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Gynaecomastia-causing drugs DISCOS:
    Digoxin
    Isoniazid
    Spironolactone
    Cimetidine
    Oestrogens
    Stilboestrol
  9. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Hypertension: treatment ABCD:
    ACE inhibitors/ AngII antagonists (sometimes Alpha agonists
    also)
    Beta blockers
    Calcium antagonists
    Diuretics (sometimes vasoDilators also)
  10. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Diuretics classification in order of site of action "COLT
    Pee:"
    • In their sequential site of action along the nephron:
    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (at the proximal tubule)
    Osmotic diuretics (at the Loop of Henle)
    Loop diuretics (at the ascending loop)
    Thiazides (at the distal tubule)
    Potassium-sparing diuretics (at the collecting tubules)
    • Diuretics make patient pee like a horse, hence "Colt Pee".
  11. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Clopidogrel: use CLOPIdogrel is a drug that prevents
    CLots, an Oral Platelet Inhibitor (OPI).


    Teratogenic drugs: major non-antibiotics TAP CAP:
    Thalidomide
    Androgens
    Progestins
    Corticosteroids
    Aspirin & indomethacin
    Phenytoin
  12. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Physostigmine vs. neostigmine LMNOP:
    Lipid soluble
    Miotic
    Natural
    Orally absorbed well
    Physostigmine
    • Neostigmine, on the contrary, is:
    Water soluble
    Used in myesthenia gravis
    Synthetic
    Poor oral absorption
  13. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Prazocin usage Prazocin sounds like an acronym of "praszz
    zour urine".
    Therefore Prazocin used for urinary retention in BPH.


    Steroid side effects CUSHINGOID:
    Cataracts
    Ulcers
    Skin: striae, thinning, bruising
    Hypertension/ Hirsutism/ Hyperglycemia
    Infections
    Necrosis, avascular necrosis of the femoral head
    Glycosuria
    Osteoporosis, obesity
    Immunosuppression
    Diabetes
  14. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Beta blockers with CYP2D6 polymorphic metabolism "I Met
    Tim Carver, the metabolic polymorph":
    • The following beta blockers require dose adjustment due to CYP2D6 polymorphic
    metabolism:
    Metoprolol
    Timolol
    Carvedilol
    (in patients with lower or higher than normal CYP2D6 activity)
  15. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Beta blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity
    Picture diabetic and asthmatic kids riding away on a cart
    that rolls on pinwheels.
    Pindolol and Carteolol have high and moderate ISA respectively,
    making them acceptable for use in some diabetics or asthmatics despite the fact
    that they are non-seletive beta blockers.
  16. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Amiodarone: action, side effects 6 P's:
    Prolongs action potential duration
    Photosensitivity
    Pigmentation of skin
    Peripheral neuropathy
    Pulmonary alveolitis and fibrosis
    Peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 is inhibited -> hypothyroidism
  17. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Morphine: effects MORPHINES:
    Miosis
    Orthostatic hypotension
    Respiratory depression
    Pain supression
    Histamine release/ Hormonal alterations
    Increased ICT
    Nausea
    Euphoria
    Sedation
  18. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: members "PIT of
    despair":
    Phenelzine
    Isocarboxazid
    Tranylcypromine
    • A pit of despair, since MAOs treat depression.
  19. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Antimuscarinics: members, action "Inhibits Parasympathetic
    And Sweat":
    Ipratropium
    Pirenzepine
    Atropine
    Scopolamine
    • Muscarinic receptors at all parasympathetic endings sweat glands in
    sympathetic.
  20. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Patent ductus arteriosus: treatment "Come In and
    Close the door":
    INdomethacin is used to ClosePDA.


    Etoposide: action, indications, side effect "eTOPoside":
    • Action:
    Inhibits TOPoisomerase II
    • Indications:
    Testicular carcinoma
    Oat cell carcinoma of lung
    Prostate carcinoma
    • Side effect:
    Affects TOP of your head, causing alopecia
  21. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Antibiotics contraindicated during pregnancy MCAT:
    Metronidazole
    Chloramphenicol
    Aminoglycoside
    Tetracycline
  22. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Lithium: side effects LITHIUM:
    Leukocytes Increased (leukocytosis)
    Tremors
    Hypothyroidism
    Increased Urine
    Moms beware (teratogenic)
  23. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Quinolones [and Fluoroquinolones]: mechanism "Topple
    the Queen":
    Quinolone interferes with Topoisomerase II.


    MPTP: mechanism, effect MPTP:
    Mitochondrial Parkinson's-Type Poison.
    • A mitochondrial poison that elicits a Parkinson's-type effect.
  24. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Osmotic diuretics: members GUM:
    Glycerol
    Urea
    Mannitol
  25. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Sulfonamide: major side effects • Sulfonamide side
    effects:
    Steven-Johnson syndrome
    Skin rash
    Solubility low (causes crystalluria)
    Serum albumin displaced (causes newborn kernicterus and potentiation of
    other serum albumin-binders like warfarin)
  26. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Drugs for All Types of Seizures (except petit mal)
    CAPHE
    CA rbamazepine
    PHE nytoin/Phenobarbital


    Drugs for Petit Mal Seizures
    VALET
    VAL proic acid
    ET hosuximide
  27. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Vancomycin
    "A Red Van Drove Into The Wall"
    A ntihistamines (prevents redman syndrome)
    R ed man syndrome
    V ancomycin
    D -ala D-ala
    I nhibitor
    T hrombophlebitis
    W all (as in cell wall)
  28. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Benzodiazepenes: antidote "Ben is off with the
    flu":
    Benzodiazepine effects off with Flumazenil.


    Narcotics: side effects "SCRAM if you see a drug
    dealer":
    Synergistic CNS depression with other drugs
    Constipation
    Respiratory depression
    Addiction
    Miosis
  29. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Sex hormone drugs: male "Feminine Males Need
    Testosterone":
    Fluoxymesterone
    Methyltestosterone
    Nandrolone
    Testosterone
  30. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Ca++ channel blockers: uses CA++ MASH:
    Cerebral vasospasm/ CHF
    Angina
    Migranes
    Atrial flutter, fibrillation
    Supraventricular tachycardia
    Hypertension
    • Alternatively: "CHASM":
    Cererbral vasospasm / CHF
    Hypertension
    Angina
    Suprventricular tachyarrhythmia
    Migranes
  31. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Benzodiazepenes: drugs which decrease their metabolism "I'm
    Overly Calm":
    Isoniazid
    Oral contraceptive pills
    Cimetidine
    • These drugs increase calming effect of BZDs by retarding metabolism.
  32. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Tetracycline: teratogenicity TEtracycline is a
    TEratogen that causes staining of
    TEeth in the newborn.


    Warfarin: metabolism SLOW:
    • Has a slow onset of action.
    • A quicK Vitamin K antagonist, though.
    Small lipid-soluble molecule
    Liver: site of action
    Oral route of administration.
    Warfarin

    Thrombolytic agents USA:
    Urokinase
    Streptokinase
    Alteplase (tPA)
  33. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Anticholinergic side effects "Know the ABCD'S of
    anticholinergic side effects":
    Anorexia
    Blurry vision
    Constipation/ Confusion
    Dry Mouth
    Sedation/ Stasis of urine
  34. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Myasthenia gravis: edrophonium vs. pyridostigmine eDrophonium
    is for Diagnosis.
    pyRIDostigmine is to get RIDof symptoms.


    Narcotic antagonists The Narcotic Antagonists
    are NAloxone and NAltrexone.
    • Important clinically to treat narcotic overdose.
  35. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Inhalation anesthetics SHINE:
    Sevoflurane
    Halothane
    Isoflurane
    Nitrous oxide
    Enflurane
    • If want the defunct Methoxyflurane too, make it MoonSHINE.
  36. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Aspirin: side effects ASPIRIN:
    Asthma
    Salicyalism
    Peptic ulcer disease/ Phosphorylation-oxidation uncoupling/ PPH/
    Platelet disaggregation/ Premature closure of PDA
    Intestinal blood loss
    Reye's syndrome
    Idiosyncracy
    Noise (tinnitus)
  37. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Therapeutic dosage: toxicity values for most commonly monitored
    medications "The magic 2s":
    Digitalis (.5-1.5) Toxicity = 2.
    Lithium (.6-1.2) Toxicity = 2.
    Theophylline (10-20) Toxicity = 20.
    Dilantin (10-20) Toxicity = 20.
    APAP (1-30) Toxicity = 200.
  38. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Opioids: effects BAD AMERICANS:
    Bradycardia & hypotension
    Anorexia
    Diminished pupilary size
    Analgesics
    Miosis
    Euphoria
    Respiratory depression
    Increased smooth muscle activity (biliary tract constriction)
    Constipation
    Ameliorate cough reflex
    Nausea and vomiting
    Sedations
  39. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Delerium-causing drugs ACUTE CHANGE IN MS:
    Antibiotics (biaxin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin)
    Cardiac drugs (digoxin, lidocaine)
    Urinary incontinence drugs (anticholinergics)
    Theophylline
    Ethanol
    Corticosteroids
    H2 blockers
    Antiparkinsonian drugs
    Narcotics (esp. mepridine)
    Geriatric psychiatric drugs
    ENT drugs
    Insomnia drugs
    NSAIDs (eg indomethacin, naproxin)
    Muscle relaxants
    Seizure medicines
  40. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Disulfiram-like reaction inducing drugs "PM PMT" as
    in Pre Medical Test in the PM:
    Procarbazine
    Metronidazole
    Cefo (Perazone, Mandole, Tetan).


    Zafirlukast, Montelukast, Cinalukast: mechanism, usage "Zafir-luk-ast,
    Monte-luk-ast, Cina-luk-ast":
    • Anti-Lukotrienes for Asthma.
    • Dazzle your oral examiner: Zafirlukast antagonizes leukotriene-4.


    4-Aminopyradine (4-AP) use "4-AP is For AP":
    For AP (action potential) propagation in Multiple Sclerosis.
  41. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Direct sympathomimetic catecholamines DINED:
    Dopamine
    Isoproterenol
    Norepinephrine
    Epinephrine
    Dobutamine
  42. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Vir-named drugs: use "-vir at start, middle or end
    means for virus":
    • Drugs: Abacavir, Acyclovir, Amprenavir, Cidofovir,
    Denavir, Efavirenz, Indavir, Invirase, Famvir,
    Ganciclovir, Norvir, Oseltamivir, Penciclovir,
    Ritonavir, Saquinavir, Valacyclovir, Viracept,
    Viramune, Zanamivir, Zovirax.
  43. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Nitrofurantoin: major side effects NitroFurAntoin:
    Neuropathy (peripheral neuropathy)
    Fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis)
    Anemia (hemolytic anemia)

    Cyclosporin Side Effects
    4HRT
    4H yperkalemia, hypertension, gum hypertrophy, hair
    R enal toxicity
    T remor
  44. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Gynacomastia Causing Drugs
    DISCO MTV
    D igoxin
    I soniazid
    S pironolactone
    C imetidine
    O estrogens
    M ethyldopa/metronidazole
    T CAD
    V erapamil
  45. samuel

    samuel New Member

    MAOI Side Effects
    The 3Hs
    H epatocellular jaundice
    H yperthermia
    H ypertension


    Propranolol, contra-indications
    ABCDE
    A sthman
    B lock (heart)
    C ardiac failure
    D M (hypoglycemic shock)
    E xtremities (occlusive arterial disease)
  46. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Pulmonary Edema, Non-Cardiac
    PONS
    P hosgene/paraquat/phenothiazines
    O pioids/organophosphates
    N itrous dioxide
    S alicylate
  47. samuel

    samuel New Member

    TCAD Side Effects
    CAN WOO
    C VS
    A nticholinergic
    N euro
    W ithdrawal
    O verdose
    O thers
  48. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Steroids: side effects BECLOMETHASONE:
    Buffalo hump
    Easy bruising
    Cataracts
    Larger appetite
    Obesity
    Moonface
    Euphoria
    Thin arms & legs
    Hypertension/ Hyperglycaemia
    Avascular necrosis of femoral head
    Skin thinning
    Osteoporosis
    Negative nitrogen balance
    Emotional liability
  49. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Methyldopa: side effects METHYLDOPA:
    Mental retardation
    Electrolyte imbalance
    Tolerance
    Headache/ Hepatotoxicity
    psYcological upset
    Lactation in female
    Dry mouth
    Oedema
    Parkinsonism
    Anaemia (haemolytic)
  50. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Sodium valproate: side effects VALPROATE:
    Vomiting
    Alopecia
    Liver toxicity
    Pancreatitis/ Pancytopenia
    Retention of fats (weight gain)
    Oedema (peripheral oedema)
    Appetite increase
    Tremor
    Enzyme inducer (liver)

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