My mnemonics n' tricks..!

Discussion in 'NEET 2013 All india Exam' started by samuel, Aug 27, 2014.

  1. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Captopril (an ACE inhibitor): side effects CAPTOPRIL:
    Cough
    Angioedema/ Agranulocystosis
    Proteinuria/ Potassium excess
    Taste changes
    Orthostatic hypotension
    Pregnancy contraindication/ Pancreatitis/ Pressure drop
    (first dose hypertension)
    Renal failure (and renal artery stenosis contraindication)/ Rash
    Indomethacin inhibition
    Leukopenia/ Liver toxicity
  2. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Lead poisoning: presentation ABCDEFG:
    Anemia
    Basophilic stripping
    Colicky pain
    Diarrhea
    Encephalopathy
    Foot drop
    Gum (lead line)
  3. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Beta-blockers: main contraindications, cautions ABCDE:
    Asthma
    Block (heart block)
    COPD
    Diabetes mellitus
    Electrolyte (hyperkalemia)
  4. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Lupus: drugs inducing it HIP:
    Hydralazine
    INH
    Procanimide

    RTI: drugs to treat viral respiratory infections "You'd get
    a respiratory infection if you shoot an ARO (arrow) laced with
    viruses into the lungs":
    ARO:
    Amantadine
    Rimantadine
    Oseltamivir
  5. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Medication administration: short checklist TRAMP:
    • Before dispensing medication, ensure have correct:
    Time
    Route
    Amount
    Medication
    Patient
  6. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Opiates: overdose findings "Cool to the touch, unresponsive
    to pain,
    Hunger diminished, and scars over vein.
    Pupils pinpointed, and blood pressure low,
    Urine diminished, and breathing is slow."
  7. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Lithium: side effects LITH:
    Leukocytosis
    Insipidus [diabetes insipidus, tied to polyuria]
    Tremor/ Teratogenesis
    Hypothyroidism
  8. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Quinolones [and Fluoroquinolones]: mechanism "Topple
    the Queen":
    Quinolone interferes with Topoisomerase II.


    MPTP: mechanism, effect MPTP:
    Mitochondrial Parkinson's-Type Poison.
    • A mitochondrial poison that elicits a Parkinson's-type effect.
  9. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Osmotic diuretics: members GUM:
    Glycerol
    Urea
    Mannitol


    Sulfonamide: major side effects • Sulfonamide side
    effects:
    Steven-Johnson syndrome
    Skin rash
    Solubility low (causes crystalluria)
    Serum albumin displaced (causes newborn kernicterus and potentiation of
    other serum albumin-binders like warfarin)
  10. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Drugs for All Types of Seizures (except petit mal)
    CAPHE
    CA rbamazepine
    PHE nytoin/Phenobarbital


    Drugs for Petit Mal Seizures
    VALET
    VAL proic acid
    ET hosuximide
  11. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Vancomycin
    "A Red Van Drove Into The Wall"
    A ntihistamines (prevents redman syndrome)
    R ed man syndrome
    V ancomycin
    D -ala D-ala
    I nhibitor
    T hrombophlebitis
    W all (as in cell wall)
  12. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Benzodiazepenes: antidote "Ben is off with the
    flu":
    Benzodiazepine effects off with Flumazenil.


    Narcotics: side effects "SCRAM if you see a drug
    dealer":
    Synergistic CNS depression with other drugs
    Constipation
    Respiratory depression
    Addiction
    Miosis
  13. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Sex hormone drugs: male "Feminine Males Need
    Testosterone":
    Fluoxymesterone
    Methyltestosterone
    Nandrolone
    Testosterone


    Ca++ channel blockers: uses CA++ MASH:
    Cerebral vasospasm/ CHF
    Angina
    Migranes
    Atrial flutter, fibrillation
    Supraventricular tachycardia
    Hypertension
    • Alternatively: "CHASM":
    Cererbral vasospasm / CHF
    Hypertension
    Angina
    Suprventricular tachyarrhythmia
    Migranes
  14. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Benzodiazepenes: drugs which decrease their metabolism "I'm
    Overly Calm":
    Isoniazid
    Oral contraceptive pills
    Cimetidine
    • These drugs increase calming effect of BZDs by retarding metabolism.


    Tetracycline: teratogenicity TEtracycline is a
    TEratogen that causes staining of
    TEeth in the newborn.
  15. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Warfarin: metabolism SLOW:
    • Has a slow onset of action.
    • A quicK Vitamin K antagonist, though.
    Small lipid-soluble molecule
    Liver: site of action
    Oral route of administration.
    Warfarin

    Thrombolytic agents USA:
    Urokinase
    Streptokinase
    Alteplase (tPA)
  16. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Anticholinergic side effects "Know the ABCD'S of
    anticholinergic side effects":
    Anorexia
    Blurry vision
    Constipation/ Confusion
    Dry Mouth
    Sedation/ Stasis of urine
  17. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Myasthenia gravis: edrophonium vs. pyridostigmine eDrophonium
    is for Diagnosis.
    pyRIDostigmine is to get RIDof symptoms.


    Narcotic antagonists The Narcotic Antagonists
    are NAloxone and NAltrexone.
    • Important clinically to treat narcotic overdose.
  18. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Inhalation anesthetics SHINE:
    Sevoflurane
    Halothane
    Isoflurane
    Nitrous oxide
    Enflurane
    • If want the defunct Methoxyflurane too, make it MoonSHINE.
  19. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Aspirin: side effects ASPIRIN:
    Asthma
    Salicyalism
    Peptic ulcer disease/ Phosphorylation-oxidation uncoupling/ PPH/
    Platelet disaggregation/ Premature closure of PDA
    Intestinal blood loss
    Reye's syndrome
    Idiosyncracy
    Noise (tinnitus)
  20. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Therapeutic dosage: toxicity values for most commonly monitored
    medications "The magic 2s":
    Digitalis (.5-1.5) Toxicity = 2.
    Lithium (.6-1.2) Toxicity = 2.
    Theophylline (10-20) Toxicity = 20.
    Dilantin (10-20) Toxicity = 20.
    APAP (1-30) Toxicity = 200.
  21. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Opioids: effects BAD AMERICANS:
    Bradycardia & hypotension
    Anorexia
    Diminished pupilary size
    Analgesics
    Miosis
    Euphoria
    Respiratory depression
    Increased smooth muscle activity (biliary tract constriction)
    Constipation
    Ameliorate cough reflex
    Nausea and vomiting
    Sedations
  22. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Delerium-causing drugs ACUTE CHANGE IN MS:
    Antibiotics (biaxin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin)
    Cardiac drugs (digoxin, lidocaine)
    Urinary incontinence drugs (anticholinergics)
    Theophylline
    Ethanol
    Corticosteroids
    H2 blockers
    Antiparkinsonian drugs
    Narcotics (esp. mepridine)
    Geriatric psychiatric drugs
    ENT drugs
    Insomnia drugs
    NSAIDs (eg indomethacin, naproxin)
    Muscle relaxants
    Seizure medicines
  23. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Disulfiram-like reaction inducing drugs "PM PMT" as
    in Pre Medical Test in the PM:
    Procarbazine
    Metronidazole
    Cefo (Perazone, Mandole, Tetan).


    Zafirlukast, Montelukast, Cinalukast: mechanism, usage "Zafir-luk-ast,
    Monte-luk-ast, Cina-luk-ast":
    • Anti-Lukotrienes for Asthma.
    • Dazzle your oral examiner: Zafirlukast antagonizes leukotriene-4.
  24. samuel

    samuel New Member

    4-Aminopyradine (4-AP) use "4-AP is For AP":
    For AP (action potential) propagation in Multiple Sclerosis.


    Direct sympathomimetic catecholamines DINED:
    Dopamine
    Isoproterenol
    Norepinephrine
    Epinephrine
    Dobutamine
  25. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Vir-named drugs: use "-vir at start, middle or end
    means for virus":
    • Drugs: Abacavir, Acyclovir, Amprenavir, Cidofovir,
    Denavir, Efavirenz, Indavir, Invirase, Famvir,
    Ganciclovir, Norvir, Oseltamivir, Penciclovir,
    Ritonavir, Saquinavir, Valacyclovir, Viracept,
    Viramune, Zanamivir, Zovirax.
  26. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Nitrofurantoin: major side effects NitroFurAntoin:
    Neuropathy (peripheral neuropathy)
    Fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis)
    Anemia (hemolytic anemia)

    Cyclosporin Side Effects
    4HRT
    4H yperkalemia, hypertension, gum hypertrophy, hair
    R enal toxicity
    T remor
  27. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Gynacomastia Causing Drugs
    DISCO MTV
    D igoxin
    I soniazid
    S pironolactone
    C imetidine
    O estrogens
    M ethyldopa/metronidazole
    T CAD
    V erapamil
  28. samuel

    samuel New Member

    MAOI Side Effects
    The 3Hs
    H epatocellular jaundice
    H yperthermia
    H ypertension


    Propranolol, contra-indications
    ABCDE
    A sthman
    B lock (heart)
    C ardiac failure
    D M (hypoglycemic shock)
    E xtremities (occlusive arterial disease)
  29. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Pulmonary Edema, Non-Cardiac
    PONS
    P hosgene/paraquat/phenothiazines
    O pioids/organophosphates
    N itrous dioxide
    S alicylate


    TCAD Side Effects
    CAN WOO
    C VS
    A nticholinergic
    N euro
    W ithdrawal
    O verdose
    O thers
  30. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Steroids: side effects BECLOMETHASONE:
    Buffalo hump
    Easy bruising
    Cataracts
    Larger appetite
    Obesity
    Moonface
    Euphoria
    Thin arms & legs
    Hypertension/ Hyperglycaemia
    Avascular necrosis of femoral head
    Skin thinning
    Osteoporosis
    Negative nitrogen balance
    Emotional liability
  31. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Methyldopa: side effects METHYLDOPA:
    Mental retardation
    Electrolyte imbalance
    Tolerance
    Headache/ Hepatotoxicity
    psYcological upset
    Lactation in female
    Dry mouth
    Oedema
    Parkinsonism
    Anaemia (haemolytic)
  32. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Sodium valproate: side effects VALPROATE:
    Vomiting
    Alopecia
    Liver toxicity
    Pancreatitis/ Pancytopenia
    Retention of fats (weight gain)
    Oedema (peripheral oedema)
    Appetite increase
    Tremor
    Enzyme inducer (liver)
  33. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Captopril (an ACE inhibitor): side effects CAPTOPRIL:
    Cough
    Angioedema/ Agranulocystosis
    Proteinuria/ Potassium excess
    Taste changes
    Orthostatic hypotension
    Pregnancy contraindication/ Pancreatitis/ Pressure drop
    (first dose hypertension)
    Renal failure (and renal artery stenosis contraindication)/ Rash
    Indomethacin inhibition
    Leukopenia/ Liver toxicity
  34. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Lead poisoning: presentation ABCDEFG:
    Anemia
    Basophilic stripping
    Colicky pain
    Diarrhea
    Encephalopathy
    Foot drop
    Gum (lead line)
  35. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Beta-blockers: main contraindications, cautions ABCDE:
    Asthma
    Block (heart block)
    COPD
    Diabetes mellitus
    Electrolyte (hyperkalemia)


    Lupus: drugs inducing it HIP:
    Hydralazine
    INH
    Procanimide
  36. samuel

    samuel New Member

    RTI: drugs to treat viral respiratory infections "You'd get
    a respiratory infection if you shoot an ARO (arrow) laced with
    viruses into the lungs":
    ARO:
    Amantadine
    Rimantadine
    Oseltamivir
  37. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Medication administration: short checklist TRAMP:
    • Before dispensing medication, ensure have correct:
    Time
    Route
    Amount
    Medication
    Patient
  38. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Opiates: overdose findings "Cool to the touch, unresponsive
    to pain,
    Hunger diminished, and scars over vein.
    Pupils pinpointed, and blood pressure low,
    Urine diminished, and breathing is slow."
  39. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Lithium: side effects LITH:
    Leukocytosis
    Insipidus [diabetes insipidus, tied to polyuria]
    Tremor/ Teratogenesis
    Hypothyroidism
  40. samuel

    samuel New Member

    SSRIs: side effects SSRI:
    Serotonin syndrome
    Stimulate CNS
    Reproductive disfunctions in male
    Insomnia
  41. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Metabolism enzyme inducers "Randy's Black Car
    Goes Putt Putt and Smokes":
    Rifampin
    Barbiturates
    Carbamazepine
    Grisoefulvin
    Phenytoin
    Phenobarb
    Smokingcigarettes
  42. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Phenobarbitone: side effects Children are annoying (hyperkinesia,
    irritability, insomnia, aggression).
    Adults are dosy (sedation, dizziness, drowsiness).


    Cholinergics (eg organophosphates): effects If you know
    these, you will be "LESS DUMB":
    Lacrimation
    Excitation of nicotinic synapses
    Salivation
    Sweating
    Diarrhea
    Urination
    Micturition
    Bronchoconstriction
  43. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Routes of entry: most rapid ways meds/toxins enter body "Stick
    it, Sniff it, ^*&^* it, Soak it":
    Stick = Injection
    Sniff = inhalation
    ^*&^* = ingestion
    Soak = absorption
  44. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Hepatic necrosis: drugs causing focal to massive necrosis "Very
    Angry Hepatocytes":
    Valproic acid
    Acetaminophen
    Halothane


    Warfarin: action, monitoring WePT:
    Warfarin works on the extrinsic pathway and is monitored by PT.
  45. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Beta-blockers: side effects "BBC Loses Viewers
    In Rochedale":
    Bradycardia
    Bronchoconstriction
    Claudication
    Lipids
    Vivid dreams & nightmares
    -ve Inotropic action
    Reduced sensitivity to hypoglycaemia
  46. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Zero order kinetics drugs (most common ones) "PEAZ
    (sounds like pees) out a constant amount":
    Phenytoin
    Ethanol
    Aspirin
    Zero order
    • Someone that pees out a constant amount describes zero order kinetics (always
    the same amount out)
  47. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Benzodiazepines: actions "Ben SCAMs Pam into
    seduction not by brain but by muscle":
    Sedation
    anti-Convulsant
    anti-Anxiety
    Muscle relaxant
    Not by brain: No antipsychotic activity.
  48. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Beta-1 vs Beta-2 receptor location "You have 1 heart
    and 2 lungs":
    Beta-1 are therefore primarily on heart.
    Beta-2 primarily on lungs.


    Cisplatin: major side effect, action "Ci-Splat-In":
    Major side effect: Splat (vomiting sound)--vomiting so severe that
    anti-nausea drug needed.
    Action: Goes Into the DNA strand.
  49. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Pupils in overdose: morphine vs. amphetamine "MorPHINE:
    Fine. AmPHETamine: Fat":
    Morphine overdose: pupils constricted (fine).
    Amphetamine overdose: pupils dilated (fat).


    Atropine use: tachycardia or bradycardia "A goes with
    B":
    Atropine used clinically to treat Bradycardia.


    Reserpine action Reserpine depletes the
    Reserves of catecholamines [and serotonin].
  50. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Botulism toxin: action, related bungarotoxin Action: "Botulism
    Bottles up the Ach so it can't be the released":
    Related bungarotoxin: "Botulism is related to Beta Bungarotoxin
    (beta-, not alpha-bungarotoxin--alpha has different mechanism).


    Ipratropium: action Atropine is buried in the middle:
    iprAtropium, so it behaves like Atropine.


    Bleomycin: action "Bleo-Mycin Blows
    My DNA to bits":
    Bleomycin works by fragmenting DNA (blowing it to bits).
    MyDNA signals that its used for cancer (targeting self cells).

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