My mnemonics n' tricks..!

Discussion in 'NEET 2013 All india Exam' started by samuel, Aug 27, 2014.

  1. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Propranolol and related '-olol' drugs: usage "olol"
    is just two backwards lower case b's.
    Backward b's stand for "beta blocker".
    • Beta blockers include acebutolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol,
    oxprenolol, propranolol.


    Succinylcholine: action, use Succinylcholine gets
    Stuck to Ach receptor, then Sucks ions in through open pore.
    You ^*&^* stuff in through a mouth-tube, and drug is used for intubation.
  2. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Corticosteroids: adverse side effects CUSHINGS BAD MD:
    Cataracts
    Up all night (sleep disturbances)
    Suppression of HPA axis
    Hypertension/ buffalo Hump
    Infections
    Necrosis (avascular)
    Gain weight
    Striae
    Bone loss (osteoporosis)
    Acne
    Diabetes
    Myopathy, moon faces
    Depression and emotional changes
  3. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Busulfan: features ABCDEF:
    Alkylating agent
    Bone marrow suppression s/e
    CML indication
    Dark skin (hyperpigmentation) s/e
    Endrocrine insufficiency (adrenal) s/e
    Fibrosis (pulmonary) s/e
  4. samuel

    samuel New Member

    PATHO

    Secondary granules of neutrophils: Contents
    "Second L.A.P"
    Lactoferrin
    Lysozyme
    Alkaline phosphatase
    Plasminogen activator
    Phospholipase A2

    Nephritic syndrome: glomerular diseases commonly presenting as
    nephritic syndrome PARIS:
    Post-streptococcal
    Alport's
    RPGN
    IgA nephropathy
    SLE
    • Alternatively: PIG ARMS to include Goodpasture's [one cause of
    RPGN], Membranoproliferative [only sometimes included in the classic
    nephritic list].

    Type 3 hypersensitivity reaction: Examples
    "SHARPan"
    Read as 'Sharpen'
    Serum sickness, SLE, post Streptococcal GN
    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
    Arthus reaction
    Reactive arthritis
    PAN

    Systemic vasculitis causing granulomas
    "Great Wall of China Trade"
    Giant cell arteritis
    Wegener's granulomatosis
    Churg-Strauss syndrome
    Takayasu's disease
  5. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Wernickes encephalopathy: components WACO:
    • Wernickes is:
    Ataxia
    Confusion (or clouded consciousness)
    Ocular problems
    • Note: Waco is the town in Texas, USA made famous for a standoff with a David
    Koresh and the Branch Davidians.
  6. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS): causes ARDS:
    Aspiration/ Acute pancreatitis/ Air embolism/ Amniotic
    embolism
    Radiation
    DIC/ Drugs/ Drowning/ Dialysis/ Diffuse lung
    infection
    Shock/ Sepsis/ Smoke inhalation
  7. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: symptom triad WASTER:
    Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome is:
    Thrombocytopenia
    Eczema
    Recurrent staphlococcal infections


    Cardiovascular risk factors (Framingham) FRAMINGHAM:
    Family history
    Running (exercise)
    Adiposity (obesity)
    Marlboros (tobacco)
    Insulin resistance (diabetes)
    Non-regulated lipids (dyslipidaemia)
    Georgie Pie (high fat diet)
    Hypertension
    Age
    Male
  8. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Macrocytosis: Non-B12/folate causes ALPHA NERD:
    Alcohol
    Liver disease
    Pregnancy
    Hemaolysis (especially chronic)
    Agglutination
    Neoplasia (including myelodysplasia)
    Endocrine (hypothyroidism)
    Reticulocytes
    Drugs (especially myelosuppressives like chemotherapy, anti-HIV meds)
  9. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Osteomyelitis: complications FIBRES:
    Fractures
    Intraosseous (broidie) abscesses
    Bacteremi/ Brodie abscess
    Reactive amyloidosis
    Endocarditis
    Sinus tracts/ Squamous cell CA


    Polycystic ovarian disease: clinical features OHIO:
    Oligomenorrhea
    Hirsutism
    Infertility
    Obesity
  10. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Microcytic anemia: causes "Find Those Small
    Cells":
    Fe deficiency
    Thalassemia
    Sideroblastic
    Chronic disease


    Hirsutism vs. virilism Hirsutism: Hair on body
    like a male.
    Virilism: Voice and rest of secondary sexual characteristics like
    a male.
  11. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Megaloblastic anemia: vitamin B12 deficiency vs. folate deficiency
    Vitamin B12 deficiency also affects Brain (optic neuropathy,
    subacute combined degeneration, paresthesia).
    • Folate deficiency is not associated with neurological symptoms.


    Symptoms of TTP/HUS "Nasty Fever Ruined
    My Tubes":
    Neurological symptoms
    Fever
    Renal failure
    Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
    Thrombocytopenia


    Hemophilia: type A factor Hemophilia A: problems with
    VIII factor (number V as an inverted A).
  12. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Thyroid carcinoma: frequency "Please Feel My
    A$$":
    In order of most frequent to least frequent, and in order from least aggressive
    to most aggressive:
    Papillary carcinoma
    Follicular carcinoma
    Medullary thyroid carcinoma
    Anaplastic carcinoma
  13. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Pneumothorax: presentation P-THORAX:
    Pleuretic pain
    Trachea deviation
    Hyperresonance
    Onset sudden
    Reduced breath sounds (& dypsnea)
    Absent fremitus
    X-ray shows collapse
  14. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Disseminated Intravascular Cogulation: causes DIC:
    Delivery TEAR (obstetric complications)
    Infections (gram negative)/ Immunological
    Cancer (prostate, pancreas, lung, stomach)
    • Obstretrical complications are TEAR:
    Toxemia of pregnancy
    Emboli (amniotic)
    Abrutio placentae
    Retain fetus products
  15. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Leukemias: acute vs. chronic rules of thumb ABCDE:
    Acute is:
    Blasts predominate
    Children
    Drastic course
    Elderly
    Few WBC's (so Fevers)
    • Chronic is all the opposites:
    Mature cells predominate
    Middle aged
    Less debilitating course
    Elevated WBC's, so not a history of fevers and infections
  16. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Pancreatitis: causes PANCREATITIS:
    Posterior
    Alcohol
    Neoplasm
    Cholelithiasis
    Rx (lasix, AZT)
    ERCP
    Abdominal surgery
    Trauma
    Infection (mumps)
    Triglycerides elevated
    Idiopathic
    Scorpion bite
  17. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: signs FAT RN:
    Fever
    Anemia
    Thrombocytopenia
    Renal problems
    Neurologic dysfunction


    Scrotum masses SHOVE IT:
    Spermatocele
    Hydrocele/ Haematocele
    Orchitis
    Varicocele
    Epidymal cyst
    Indirect inguinal hernia
    Torsion/ Tumor
  18. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Kawasaki disease: diagnostic criteria CHILD:
    5 letters=5 days, >5 years old, 5 out 6 criteria for
    diagnosis:
    Conjuctivitis (bilateral)
    Hyperthermia (fever) >5 days
    Idiopathic polymorphic rash
    Lymphoadenopathy (cervical)
    Dryness & redness of (i)lips & month (ii)palms & soles [2 separate
    criteria]
  19. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Pancoast tumor: relationship with Horner's syndrome "Horner
    has a MAP of the Coast":
    A panCoast tumor is a cancer of the lung apex that compresses the
    cervical sympathetic plexus, causing Horner's syndrome, which is MAP:
    Miosis
    Anhidrosis
    Ptosis
  20. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Pericarditis: findings PERICarditis:
    Pulsus paradoxus
    ECG changes
    Rub
    Increased JVP
    Chest pain [worse on inspiration, better when lean forward]
  21. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Cardiovascular risk factors FLASH BODIES:
    Family history
    Lipids
    Age
    Sex
    Homocystinaemia
    Blood pressure
    Obesity
    Diabetes mellitus
    Inflammation (raised CRP)/ Increased thrombosis
    Exercise
    Smoking
  22. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Hypokalaemia: clinical features TIMID CHIMP:
    Tetany
    Increases paralytic ileus (aggravates)
    Muscle weakness
    Increases possibility of hepatic encephalopathy
    Digoxin toxicity
    Cardiac arrythmias
    Hypotonia
    Increases P-R interval, T wave and prominent U wave
    Muscle cramps
    Polyuria
  23. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Diabetes: short list of complications SHAKE:
    Stroke
    Heart attack
    Amputations
    Kidney disease
    Eyes (vision loss)
  24. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Osteosarcoma: features PEARL HARBOR:
    Paget's disease (10-20%)*
    Early age (10-20 yrs)
    Around knee
    Raised periosteum by expanding tumor: "sunburst pattern"
    Lace-like architecture
    Hyaline arteoriosclerosis
    Alkaline phosphatase increased
    Retinoblastoma*
    Boys, predominantly
    Osteomyelitis DDx
    Radiation*
    • Sunburst pattern was Japanese Navy emblem during WWII.
    *: Predisposing factors.
  25. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Edwards' syndrome: characteristics EDWARDS:
    Eighteen (trisomy)
    Digit overlapping flexion
    Wide head
    Absent intellect (mentally retarded)
    Rocker-bottom feet
    Diseased heart
    Small lower jaw
  26. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Fragile X syndrome: features FEMALES
    FMR1 gene
    Exhibits anticpation
    Macro-orchidism
    Autism
    Long face with large jaw
    Everted eyes
    Second most common casue of genetic mental retardation
  27. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Achalasia: 1 possible cause, 1 treatment aCHAlasia:
    1 possible cause: CHAgas' disease
    1 treatment: Ca++ CHAnnel blockers


    Anemia: TIBC finding to differentiate iron deficiency vs. chronic
    disease TIBC levels at the:
    Top=Iron deficiency.
    Bottom=Chronic disease.
  28. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Achalasia: 1 possible cause, 1 treatment aCHAlasia:
    1 possible cause: CHAgas' disease
    1 treatment: Ca++ CHAnnel blockers


    Anemia: TIBC finding to differentiate iron deficiency vs. chronic
    disease TIBC levels at the:
    Top=Iron deficiency.
    Bottom=Chronic disease.
  29. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Colon cancer: risk factors HULA:
    Heridity/ Heriditary diseases
    Ulcerative colitis
    Low fibre, high fat diet
    Adenomatous polyps


    COPD: blue bloater vs. pink puffer diseases emPhysema
    has letter P (and not B) so Pink Puffer.
    chronic Bronchitis has letter B (and not P) so Blue Bloater.
  30. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Macrocytic anaemia: differential FAT RBC:
    Fetus (pregnancy)
    Alcohol
    Thyroid disease(ie hypothyroidism)
    Reticulocytosis
    B12 and folate deficiency
    Cirrhosis and chronic liver disease
  31. samuel

    samuel New Member

    MI: post-MI complications ACT RAPID:
    Arrhythmias (SVT, VT, VF)
    Congestive cardiac failure
    Tamponade/ Thromboembolic disorders
    Rupture (ventricle, septum, papillary muscle)
    Aneurysm (ventricle)
    Pericarditis
    Infaction (a second one)
    Death/ Dressler's syndrome
  32. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Hypersplenism: criteria "Hyper Splenism Ravages
    Cells":
    Hypercellular or normal marrow
    Splenomegaly
    Response to splenectomy
    Cytopenias
  33. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Whipple's disease: full features WHIPPLES:
    Weight loss
    Hyperpigmentation of skin
    Infection with tropheryma whippelii
    PAS positive granules in macrophage
    Polyarthritis
    Lymphadenopathy
    Enteric involvement
    Steatorrhea
  34. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Pick's disease: features PICK:
    Progressive degeneration of neurons
    Intracytoplasmic Pick bodies
    Cortical atrophy
    Knife edge gyri
  35. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Alzheimer's disease (AD): associations, findings AD:
    • Associations:
    Aluminum toxicity
    Acetylcholine deficiencies
    Amyloid B
    Apolipoprotein gene E
    Altered nucleus basalis of Meynert
    Down's
    • Findings:
    Actin inclusions (Hirano bodies)
    Atrophy of brain
    Amyloid plaques
    Aphasia, Apraxia, Agitation
    DNA-coiled tangles
    Dementia, Disoriented, Depressed
  36. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Osteomalacia: features "Vit-D deficiency in ADULT":
    Acetabuli protrusio
    Decresed bone density
    Under mineralization of osteoid
    Looser's zone (pseudofracture)
    Triradiate pelvis (females)


    Anemia (normocytic): causes ABCD:
    Acute blood loss
    Bone marrow failure
    Chronic disease
    Destruction (hemolysis)
  37. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Phaeochromocytoma: diagnositc rule • Rule of 10's:
    10% ectopic
    10% multiple
    10% malignant


    Hematuria: urethral causes NUTS:
    Neoplasm
    Urethritis
    Tumour
    Stone
  38. samuel

    samuel New Member

    CREST sydrome: components CREST:
    Calcinosis
    Raynaud's phenomena
    Esophageal dysmotility
    Sclerodactyly
    Telangectasia
  39. samuel

    samuel New Member

    TTP: clinical features Thrombosis and thrombocytopenia
    PARTNER together:
    Platelet count low
    Anemia (microangiopathic hemolytic)
    Renal failure
    Temperature rise
    Neurological deficits
    ERadmission (as it is an emergency)
  40. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Pancreatitis: causes BAD S#!T:
    Biliary: gallstones, 1% of ERCP patients
    Alcoholism/ Azotemia
    Drugs
    Scorpion bite/ Sea anenome/ SLE
    Hyperlipidemia/ Hypercalcemia
    Idiopathic/ Infectious (mumps, coxsackie, salmonella, ascariasis)
    Tumor/ Trauma
    • The drugs are: penacillamine, furosemide, thiazides, ethacrynic acid,
    steroids, sulfas, ace inhibitors, N-SAIDs, erythromycin, estrogen.
  41. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Fragile-X syndrome: features DSM-4:
    Discontinued chromosome staining
    Shows anticipation
    Male (male more affected)
    Mental retardation (2nd most common genetic cause)
    Macrognathia
    Macroorchidism
  42. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Endometrial carcinoma: risk factors HONDA:
    Hypertension
    Obesity
    Nulliparity
    Diabetes
    Age (increased)
  43. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Kawasaki's disease: features FEAR ME:
    Fever
    Eye: perilimbic sparing conjunctival injection
    Adenopathy: usually cervical
    Rash
    Mouth: red lips
    Extremities: red hands and feet
    • Disease to be feared because of risk of coronary aneurysms.
  44. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Pheochromocytoma: common symptoms 5 P's:
    Paroxysmal rise in BP
    Palpitations
    Perspiration
    Pain in abdomen
    PMV in urine
  45. samuel

    samuel New Member

    IBD: extraintestinal manifestations "Left intestine to sail
    the SEAS of the rest of the body":
    Skin manifestations: erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum
    Eye inflammation: iritis, episcleritis
    Arthritis
    Sclerosing cholangitis
  46. samuel

    samuel New Member

    MI: complications "LEAP on the MAP":
    LVF
    Embolism (systemic)
    Aneurysm (ventricular)
    Progressive infarction
    Myocardial rupture
    Arrhythmia
    Pericarditis
  47. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Portal hypertension: features ABCDE:
    Ascites
    Bleeding (haematemesis, piles)
    Caput medusae
    Diminished liver
    Enlarged spleen
  48. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Alzheimer's disease: features RONALD (Ronald Reagan,
    a famous victim):
    Reduction of Ach
    Old age
    Neurofibrillary tangles
    Atrophy of cerebral cortex (diffuse)
    Language impairment
    Dementia (MC in elderly)/ Down's syndrome
  49. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Gout: major features GOUT:
    Great toe
    One joint (75% monoarticular)
    Uric acid increased (hence urolithiasis)
    Tophi


    Seronegative spondyloarthopathy: diseases RAPE:
    Reiter's syndrome
    Ankylosing spondylitis
    Psoriatic arthitis
    Enteropathic arthitis (IBD)
  50. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Protein C, Protein S: function C and S are:
    Clot
    Stoppers
    • These proteins inhibit coagulation.


    Melanoma vs. basal cell, squamous cell carcinoma: metastatic ability
    MElanoma is more likely to
    MEtastasize.
    • Basal and squamous hardly ever metastasize.

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