NIMHANS 2015 DM/Mch/MD

Discussion in 'PG Entrance Message Board' started by samuel, Nov 10, 2014.

  1. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Compared to controls, HIV patients had an enlargement of bilateral
    globus pallidus and a global brain atrophy
    HIV encephalopathy is pathologically characterized by diffuse white matter pallor and rarefaction, as well as astrocytic cell death. The blood–brain barrier breaks down and HIV-induced cytokines and neurotoxins are produced, causing dendritic simplification and neuronal loss. Regionally, central white matter and deep gray matter structures – such as the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem – are particularly vulnerable to atrophy
    Surface-based anatomical maps also revealed regional atrophy in the caudate and as well as corpus callosum thinning and ventricular expansion Brain regions affected
    HIV is associated with pathological changes in mainly subcortical and fronto-striatal areas of the brain, including the basal ganglia, deep white matter, and hippocampal regions. Neuroimaging studies of HIV patients indicate that significant volume reductions are apparent in the frontal white matter, whereas subcortically, hypertrophy is apparent in the basal ganglia, especially the putamen.
    HIV is associated with pathological changes in mainly subcortical and fronto-striatal areas of the brain, including the basal ganglia, deep white matter, and hippocampal regions. Neuroimaging studies of HIV patients indicate that significant volume reductions are apparent in the frontal white matter, whereas subcortically, hypertrophy is apparent in the basal ganglia, especially the putamen.
  2. samuel

    samuel New Member

    Lynch Syndrome Associated with Tumors of Colon ; Endometrium and Ovary .

    Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis is associated with Hypokalemic Alkalosis .

    <AIPGME 2014 Dec 6 Morning Session>
  3. Rajesh Saagar

    Rajesh Saagar New Member

    Thanks for the useful content Samuel. Is this are repeated topics in the exams or it is only important topics that to be revised for NIMHANS exams?
  4. samuel

    samuel New Member

    2. FEBRILE NON HEMOLYTIC TRANSFUSION REACTION (FNHTR):
    is defined as rise in temperature of 1°C with or without rigors. It occurs early during transfusion or 1-2hoursafter completion.
    Incidence: It is common. Incidence is 0. 5 to 1%. Higher incidence is seen with multiple transfusions and in multiparous females.
    Aetiology: Antibodies to leucocytes; Cytokine release. Clinical picture: Fever with or without chills, mild rise in temperature; responsive to antipyretic.
    Warning sign: Severe rigors, temperature more than 40°C suggest bacterial sepsis.
    Recurrence: 1 out of 7 with previous Febrile Non Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction.
    Management: It is a diagnosis of exclusion. Stop transfusion till hemolytic transfusion reaction ruled out. Blood can be restarted if hemolytic reaction is ruled out. Restart blood transfusion slowly. If hemolytic reaction is ruled out, Chlorpheniramine 50 mg & paracetamol may be administered as a supportive treatment.
    Prevention: a) Use Leucodepletion filters if history of more than 2 FNHTR. b) Saline washed RBC. c) Premedication with paracetamol.

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