Plz answer these mcq's of MRCOG 1

Discussion in 'MRCOG Forum' started by dr Gul e lalah, Aug 29, 2010.

  1. The pelvic surface of the sacrum?
    - gives origin to the piriform muscles
    - gives origin to the levator ani muscles
    - is broader in the male than in the female
    - trnasmit dorsal rami of sacral nerves
    - is in contact with the anal canal
    Prolactin.
    - release is stimulated by TRH
    - plasma levels are raised in the first trim of preg.
    - release is increased by suckling.
    - maybe produced by decidua.
    - release is inhibited by metoclopromide.
    The foll disorders and org are correctly paired.
    - opthalmia neonatorum: chlamydia trachomatis
    - chancroid: Haemophilus ducreyi.
    - sleeping sickness: Leishmania donovani.
    - ringworm: Trichenella spiralis.
    - non-specific urethritis: Toxoplasma gondii.
    The heart rate typically increases in response to:
    - pain.
    - hypoxia.
    - ventilatory expiration
    - increase in Intracranial pressure
    - decrease baroreceptor activity
    Antibodies.
    - are proteins.
    - are formed in the fetus before 12 weeks of Intrauterine life.
    - have an average molecular weight of around 10 000 daltons.
    - of the rhesus type are genetically transmitted.
    - are produced by the ribosome of plasma cells.
    The following disorders have an X linked pattern of inheritance.
    - G6PD Deficeincy.
    - Kleinfelter syndrome
    - adrenogenital syndrome
    - haemophilia B
    - familial hypercholestroleamia.
    The following are derived from the urogenital sinus:
    - the bladder trigone.
    - the ureters.
    - the female urethra.
    - greater vestibular glands.
    - paraurethral glands.
    In the fetal CVS
    - the heart arises from endoderm
    - the heart is formed by fusion of endocardial tubes.
    - Cardiac pulsation is present byoxygenated blood is tranferred to the left atrium through the foramen
    ovale.
    - the ductus arteriosus closes during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy.
    Arginine vasopressin
    - reduces GFR.
    - controls water loss in the Proximal renal tubule.
    - is synthesised by the post pituitary gland.
    - is released in response to rise in plasma osmolality.
    - is released in response to fall in circulating plasma volume.
    Renin
    - is secreted by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal coretx.
    - is a proteolytic enzyme.
    - is secreted at an increased rate if the renal perfusion pressure falls.
    - acts upon circulating angiotensinogen.
    - is released in response to an increase in extracellular fluid volume
    Actinomyces israelii
    - is a rickettsia.
    - forms yellow granules in pus.
    - is a commensal in the mouth.
    - is a commensal in the vagina.
    - is usually resistant to penicillin.
    Diseases caused by spirochaetes include.
    - Weil's disease.
    - lymphogranuloma venereum
    - pinta
    - Vincent's angina.
    - bilharzias
    The following are inherited as autosomal recessive conditions:
    - tuberous sclerosis.
    - phenylketonuria.
    - achondroplasia
    - sickle cell anaemia.
    - Von gierke's disease.
    Antibodies play an important part in the development of:
    - phagocytosis.
    - Mantoux responce.
    - erythroblastosis fetalis.
    - hyperemesis gravidarum
    - anaphylaxis
    chemical mediators concerned in the production of an inflammatory
    response include:
    - 5-hydroxytryptamine
    - aldosterone.
    - glucocorticoids.
    - bradykinin
    - leukotreines
    The parathyroid gland.
    - originate from the pharyngeal cleft ectoderm.
    - secrete parathyroid hormone via the chief( principal) cells.
    - secrete calcitonin via the oxyphil cells.
    - may become hyperplastic in the presence of intestinal malabsorption.
    - may develop adenomas in association with islet cell tumour of the
    pancreas
    In the abdominal wall:
    - the rectus abdominis muscle is attched to the crest of the pubis.
    - the post border of the external oblique muscle ends in the linea
    semilunaris.
    - the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle takes part in the
    formation of the conjoint tendon.
    - the inferior epigastric artery is a branch of the internal iliac artery.
    - the conjoint tendon blends medially with the anterior layer of the
    rectus sheath.
    The urogenital sinus in the female gives rise to the following:
    - ureter
    - paraurethral glands
    - Bartholin's gland
    - urachus
    - Gartner's duct.
    Concerning sex hormone:
    - the ovary secretes androstenedione.
    - The ovary secretes testosterone
    - The ovary secretes dihydrotestosterone.
    - SHBG conc. are higher in women more than men
    - Androgens bound to protein have high biological activity.
    Features of congenital rubella include:
    - excretion of virus by the neonates.
    - hepatomegaly
    - excessive production of growth hormone.
    - cataract
    - deafness.
    Clomifene citrate:
    - is an anti-androgens.
    - does not stimulate ovulation directly.
    - can produce visual disturbance.
    - is genereally prescribed throughtout the proliferative phase of the
    menstrual cycle.
    - in the treatment of ovulation increases the risk of multiple pregnancy.
    The foll are cytotoxic alkylation agents:
    - Cyclophosphamide.
    - mercaptopurine
    - chlorambucil
    - fluorouracil
    - methotrexate.
    If a distribution of results is markedly skewed to the left:
    - the mean is the same as the 50th centile.
    - the same number of values lie on either side of the median.
    - the mode is equal to the median.
    - the student's t test should be used to compare the distribution with
    another.
    - logarithmic transformation of the result will produce a distribution
    closer to the normal.
    Corcerning the analysis of clinical trials:
    - the 95% confidence interval indicates the range within which 19 out of
    20 values will lie.
    - The P value illustrates how often the result would be expected to occur
    by chance.
    - c)b The conventional level of statistical significance is set of P<0.005
    - In a randomised trial, there must be equal numbers of results in each
    arm of the study.
    - A relative risk reduction of 60% is significant irrespective of the value
    of P.
    The following substance are normally synthesized in the liver:
    - glucagon
    - vitamin A
    - cholesterol.
    - immunoglobulins
    - prothrombin
    The pineal gland:
    - is situated at the anterior end of the 3rd ventricles.
    - is innervated by the parasymphathetic nervous system.
    - produces melatonin.
    - maybe calcified in the adults.
    - is most active during daylight.
    In congenital adrenal cortical hyperplasia.
    - The commonest deficiency is C18 hydroxylase.
    - plasma cortisol concentration is raised.
    - urinary excretion of 17 oxysteroids is elevated.
    - dexamethasone will suppress the urinary excretion of 17 oxysteroids.
    - there is no virilising effects.
    28)The following are RNA containing virus:
    - coxsackie
    - influneza
    - mumps
    - herpes simplex.
    - cytomegalovirus.
    Listeria monocytogenes:
    - is a gram negative organism.
    - is sensitive to ampicillin.
    - may cause a transplacental infection.
    - is sexually transmitted.
    - can be cultured from a high vagina swab.
    actinomyces israelii.
    - is a fungus.
    - forms yellow granules in pus.
    - is a mouth commensal
    - occurs in association with IUCD.
    - is resistant to penicillin.
    The following drugs may cause enlargement of the fetal thyroid gland:
    - methyldopa
    - thyroxine
    - carbimazole
    - propranolol
    - propylthiouracil
    The following statements about anticoagulant are correct:
    - Heparin inhibits the action of thrombin
    - The action of heparin is antagonised by vitamin K
    - Heparin increases antithrombin III activity.
    - The effects of anticoagulants are decreased by metronidazole.
    - Warfarin is greater than 80% protein bound in plasma
    The following drugs and side effects are associated:
    - methydopa: depression
    - paracetamol: thromboembolism
    - indomethacin: peptic ulcer
    - prednisolone: osteoporosis.
    - ritodrine: hypoglycemia
    Haematopoiesis in the fetus:
    - results in nucleated erythrocytes early in development.
    - occurs in the yolk sac in the first month.
    - does not occur in the bone marrow until term.
    - is predominantly hepatic during the 4th month.
    - does not require folic acid.
    Early blood borne dissemination is characterised feature of:
    - carcinoma of the endometrium.
    - osteosarcoma
    - basal cell carcinoma
    - carcinoma of the cervix
    - choriocarcinoma.
    The following cells maybe phagocytic:
    - neutrophils.
    - kupffer cells
    - monocytes
    - Hofbauer cells.
    - plasma cell.
    The following are premalignant conditions:
    - diverticular disease of the large bowel.
    - ulcerative colitis.
    - pulmonary asbestosis.
    - Paget's disease of the bone.
    - condylomata of the vulva
    In the pituitary gland:
    - the anterior lobe is smaller than the posterior lobe.
    - the posterior lobe is ectodermal in origin.
    - the acidophil cells produces oxytocin.
    - the basophil cells produce growth hormone.
    - the blood supply is derived from the internal carotis artery.
    The obturator artery:
    - branches from the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery.
    - passes through the greater sciatic foramen.
    - is crossed by the ureter.
    - supplies the hip joint.
    - may be replaced by a branch of the superior epigastric artery.
    In congenital adrenal hyperplasia:
    - the commonest cause is a deficiency of 21 hydroxylase.
    - the plasma cortisol conc is increased.
    - there may be excessive secretion of 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone.
    - sodium retention is characteristic.
    - blood cathecholamine conc are increased.
    In the fetal lung:
    - bronchial cartilage formation commences at 18-24 weeks of gestation.
    - type II alveolar cells first appear at 16-20 weeks gestation.
    - sphingomyelin is the most common phospholipid present at term
    - phospholipid release is increased by endogenous adrenaline.
    - phospholipid production is decreased by exogenous corticosteroids.
    In radiotherapy
    - 1 gray is equivalent to 1 joule/kg.
    - the skin usually receives a greater dose of radiation than the
    underlying tissues.
    - the major effect of radiation energy is to damage the cytoplasm of the
    cell.
    - cells in tissues which are hypoxic are more vulnerable to radiation.
    - Radiation induced changes in tissues may take 6 weeks to develop.
    Concerning the adrenal glands
    - cortex is derived from neural crest cells.
    - Zona fasiculata secretes aldosterone.
    - Cortical adenomas may cause Cushing syndrome.
    - Neuroblastoma arise in the medulla.
    - Addison's disease may result from autoimmune destruction of the
    cortex.
    The following are autosomal recessive:
    - neurofibromatosis.
    - cystic fibrosis.
    - phenylketonuria
    - polyposis coli
    - sickle cell anaemia
    Uterine fibroids:
    - are defines histologically as fibromyxomas.
    - arise from endometrial stroma
    - maybe associated with polycythamia.
    - predispose to endometrial hyperplasia.
    - are liable to sarcomatous change in about 5% of cases.
    growth of the foll tumors are hormone dependent:
    - squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.
    - breast adenocarcinoma.
    - uterine leiomyoma.
    - prostatic adenocarcinoma
    - testicular carcinoma
    Surfactants:
    - is formed mainly in the placenta
    - levels in amniotic fluid diminish after 33 weeks of gestation
    - formation can be inferred from the lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio in
    amniotic fluid.
    - contains palmitic acid
    - decreases the surface tension in pulmonary alveoli.
    Intracellular fluid differs from Extracellular fluids in that:
    - it forms the major proportion of total body water.
    - its volume can be measured easily.
    - it has a higher concentration of potassium than of sodium.
    - its volume is regulated primarily by the kidneys.
    - it has a higher phosphate concentration.
    The Anal canal:
    - has an upper part which is innervated by the inferior hypogastric
    plexus.
    - has a lower part which is supplied by the superior rectal artery
    - drains lymph to the superficial inguinal nodes from its upperpart.
    - has its internal sphincter innervated by the infecrior rectal nerve.
    - has a superficial part of its external sphincter attached to the coccyx.
    The right ovarian artery:
    - Arises from the abdominal aorta above the renal artery.
    - passes posterior to the 3rd (horizontal) part of the duodenum
    - passes post to the genitofemoral nerve.
    - supplies the right ureter.
    - anastomoses with the right uteriVulva supplied by:
    - Internal pudendal artery.
    - Inferior rectal artery.
    - Genitofemoral artery
    - obturator artery
    - femoral artery..
    This is a question outside past papers..All r false Except internal
    pudendal artery..
    The vagina:
    - has an anterior wall longer than the post wall.
    - contains mucus secreting glands in its epithelium.
    - is related in its lower third to the bladder base.
    - during reproductive life has an acid pH.
    - is derived from mesonephric duct.
    The right ureter:
    - is approx 50cm in length.
    - ia partly covered by duodenum
    - crosses the genitofemoral nerve.
    - enters the bladder anteromedially.
    - receives part of its blood supply from the uterine artery.
    After birth:
    - allantois froms median umblical ligament
    - umbilical vein forms medial umbilical ligament.
    - umbilical artery forms superior vesical artery.
    - ductus venosus forms the ligamentum teres.
    - ductus arteriosus forms the arch of the aorta.
    In spermiogenesis:
    - primary spermatocytes undergo reduction division.
    - primary spermatocyte gives rise to 4 spermatids.
    - whole process of spermatogenesis in man takes 6-7 days.
    - grossly abnormal spermatozoa may be found in fertile semen.
    - spermatids are haploid.
    In the human male, dihydrotestosterone:
    - is a precursor of testosterone.
    - has one-tenth of the ptency of testosterone.
    - is responsible for involution of the Mullerain system.
    - is responsible of the male external genitalia.
    - binds to an intracellular receptor.
    In Human lactation:
    - estrogens promote development of breast lobules.
    - estrogen promotes milk producing effect of prolactin on the brest,
    - human placental lactogen is essential for milk synthesis.
    - prolactin stimualtes gonadotrophin release.
    - oxytocin causes milk ejection,
    Concerning testicular hormones:
    - testosterone reduces plasma LH conc.
    - Inhibin stimulates LH production.
    - Estrogen are formed in the testis.
    - Testosterone is converted to dihyrotestosterone by 5 alpha reductase.
    - Testosterone in plasma is predominantly bound to albumin.
    Epidermal growth factor:
    - is mitogenic.
    - synthesis is stimulated by estradiol.
    - is a steroid molecule.
    - is found in endometrium.
    - binds to a receptor on the nuclear membrane.
    folic acid:
    - deficiency causes megaloblastic bone marrow..
    - is hydroxycobalamin.
    - is present in green vegetables.
    - is predominantly absorbed from the large intestine.
    - is destroyed by boiling water.
    Doppler Ultrasound:
    - is used to monitor fetal breathing.
    - is used in fetal HR monitors.
    - can be used to measure blood velocity in the fetus.
    - measure proton relaxation times.
    - requires injection of contrast agents.
    The following are structural aberration of chromosomes:
    - deletions.
    - inversions.
    - aneuploidy.
    - polyploidy.
    - translocation.
    Messenger RNA
    - synthesis is dependant on RNA polymerase.
    - is an exact copy of sense DNA.
    - contains exons.
    - is measured by western analysis.
    - translationoccurs in the nucleus.
    In tumors of the bones:
    - primary malignancy is more common than 2ndry malignancy.
    - osteoma rarely present in skull bones.
    - osteosarcoma is associated with Paget's disease of bone.
    - lymph node metastases are unusual.
    - simple bone cysts have a strong tendency to recur.
    Concerning the rectus sheath.
    - Above the costal margin rectus abdominis lies on the costal cartilages.
    - Below the arcuate line the internal oblique splits to enclose rectus
    abdominis.
    - It contains the musculophrenic artery.
    - It is innervated by the ilioinguinal nerve
    - Pyramidalis is innervated by the subcostal nerve.
    The external iliac artery.
    - Enters the thigh anterior to the inguinal ligament.
    - at its origin is crossed by the ureter.
    - at its origin is crossed by the ovarian vessels.
    - Lies medial to the external iliac vein at its distal end.
    - gives rise to the deep external pudendal artery.
    Action of Insulin include stimulation of:
    - glycogenolysis by the liver.
    - cellular uptake of amino acids.
    - entry of glucose into neurons.
    - d)entry of glucose into adipose tissue.
    - cellular uptake of potassium.
    Metronidazole:
    - is effective against Giardia lamblia.
    - is effective when administered per rectum
    - should not be administered intravenously.
    - is usually effective against Entamoeba histolytica.
    - interferes with ethanol metabolism.
    Amniotic fluid:
    - at term is hyperosmolar compared to fetal plasma.
    - normally contains maternal and fetal cells.
    - contains a higher concentration of alpha feto protein at 16 weeks than
    at term.
    - contains bilirubin.
    - contains phospholipids.
    Chromosomes: - are found in the same numb in all mammalian cells.
    - can be analysed more quickly from a blood sample than from an
    amniotic fluid sample.
    - can be reliably identified by their length.
    - the Y chromosome is larger than the X chromosome.
    - DNA content is doubled during the S phase of the cell cycle.
    In cystic fibrosis, abnormalities are seen in the
    - pancreas
    - salivary glands.
    - brain
    - kidneys
    - ileum
    Neutrophil polymorphs at the site of inflammation are capable of the
    following:
    - Phagocytosis.
    - production of oxygen free radicals.
    - replication
    - fusion to form giant cells.
    - antibody production
    In the statistical analysis of any group of numericals
    - the mean is always less than the mode
    - standard deviation is always greater than the standard error
    - the median value lies at the midpoint of the range
    - the standard error of the mean is independent of the total
    number of observations
    - there are the same number of observations greater than and
    less than the median value
    In a randomised double blind trial comparing a new drug with a
    placebo
    - the patient will be taking either of two drugs
    - patients can choose their mode of treatment
    - doctors prescribing treatment decide which patients take the
    new drug
    - a large trial is more likely to give a statistically significant result
    than a small trial
    - half of the patients will take the new drug
    In a trial of oral hypoglycaemic agents 42 patients were given drug A
    and 38 drug B . blood glucose conc. were measured befor and after a
    single dose of the drug. Drug B apparently caused greater fall in the
    blood glucose conc. (P=0.06)
    - these results reach an accepted level of statistical significants
    - Non- parametric statistical analysis bshould be used if datd are
    not normally distributed
    - In biological terms drugs A and B have been shown to be eqully
    effective
    - 6% more patients responded to drug A than drug B
    - Unequal numbers in the two groups invalidate the trial
    The following statistical statements are correct
    - In the normal distribution the value of the mode is 1.73 * that
    of the median
    - In a distribution skewed to the right, the mean lies to the left to
    the median
    - In the series 2;7;5;2;3;2;5;8, the mode is 2
    - Student's test is designed to correct for skewed distributions
    - the Chi-squared test may be used when data are not normally
    distributed
  2. shalinik

    shalinik Guest

    mrcog part 1 experience

    in this 90%questions were repeated in sep10 exam.in paper 1

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