Previous Years papers MRCOG

Discussion in 'MRCOG Forum' started by samay., Jul 18, 2009.

  1. samay.

    samay. Guest

    March 1997

    1- The conversion of glucose to lactic acid .
    a- occurs in a single enzymatic reaction ....................F
    b- is the only pathway for the synthesis of ATP in the red blood cell ......T
    c- is a reversible process in skeletal muscle ........................................T
    d- is inhibited by high cellular concentration of ATP ..............................T
    e- occurs in skeletal muscle when the availabilty of oxgyen is limited ....T

    2- Uric Acid ..
    a- is formed from the breakdown of purines ...................................T
    b- is raised is serum during normal pregnancy ................................F
    c- is increased in serum during thiazide diuretic therapy ...................T
    d- is reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubule ...................................T
    e- is excreted unchange in the urine ................................................T

    3- Adenine ..
    a- is a pyrimidine base ...............F
    b- forms base pairs with thymine in RNA ...................F
    c- is synthesised attached to ribose phosphate ..........F
    d- can be converted directly to a nucleotide by the action of phosphoribosyl-transferase enzyme ..................F
    e- is degraded by a pathway which involves the enzyme xanthine oxidase.....T

    4- Bilirubin ..
    a- is a steriod .................F
    b- is bound to albumin in the circulation ......................T
    c- conjugates iron .....................................................F
    d- is conjugated to glycerine ......................................F
    e- facilitates absorption of fat from the gut ..................T

    5- Combined salt and water depletion is associated with ....
    a- a high concentration of sodium in the urine ..................T
    b- a high urine specific gravity ........................................T
    c- pre - renal uraemia ....................................................T
    d- a fall in the central venous pressure ............................T
    e- a high blood urea concentration ..................................T

    6- Ethanol ..
    a- consumed is excess stimulation fatty acid oxidation ................F
    b- suppresses arginine vasopressin secretion ............................T
    c- promotes gluconeogenesis ...................................................F
    d- is oxidised to acetaldehyde ..................................................T
    e- is metabolised predominantly by the liver ..............................T

    7- Glucocorticoids ..
    a- promote hepatic gluconeogenesis ....................T
    b- supress uptake of glucose by muscles ..............T
    c- promote protein breakdown .............................T
    d- promote fat breakdown ...................................T
    e- increase glycolysis in adipose tissue .................T

    8- Haemoglobin
    a- has four porphyrin rings ............................T
    b- can carry four molecules of oxygen ............T
    c- binds carbon monoxide more readily than oxygen ............T
    d- is synthesised in mature erythrocytes .........T
    e- contains two beta chains ............................T

    9- Cholesterol ..
    a- is an essenital dietary requirement ...............................F
    b- is present in the plasma membrane of all human cells ....T
    c- cannot be synthesised by the liver ................................F
    d- is transported in the circulation bound to albumin ...........F
    e- is a precursor for the synthesis of steroid hormones .......T

    10- Fetal haemoglobin (HbF) .
    a- is not formed before 20 weeks of intrauterine life ......................F
    b- is more resistant than adult haemoglobin to denaturation by alkali .....T
    c- in the fetus constitutes 80 - 90 % of the haemoglobin at term ............T
    d- represents less than 5% of total haemoglobin 8 weeks after birth .......T
    e- is increased in adult patients with beta thalassaemia .........................T

    11- Fibrinogen ..
    a- levels are usually low during pregnancy .......................................F
    b- is a substrate for thrombin ...........................................................F
    c- at elevated plasma levels causes a reduction in the erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR) .......F
    d- is synthesised in the liver ............................................................T
    e- is a Bence Jones protein .............................................................F
  2. samay.

    samay. Guest

    September 1997

    1- Triglyceride .
    a- contain glycerol combined with three identical fatty acids ..................F
    b- may accumlate in the liver cells .....................................................T
    c- are present in intestinal cells .........................................................T
    d- are hydrolysed by pancreatic lipase ...............................................T
    e- are not present in chylomicrons .....................................................T

    2- Ribonucleic acid (RNA) .
    a- contains deoxyribose ....................................F
    b- is composed of two mucleotide units ...............F
    c- is the main constituent of human chromosomes ...................F
    d- is the main constituent of ribosomes ..................................T
    e- is required during protein synthesis ....................................T

    3- In one turn of the tricarboxylic acid cycle , three molecules of ..
    a- carbon dioxide (CO2) are produced ..............................................F
    b- reduced (NADH) are produced .......................................................T
    c- reduced (FADH2) are produced ......................................................F
    d- guanosine triphosphate (GTP) are produced ....................................F
    e- acetyl co-enzyme A (acetyl COA) are used .....................................F


    1. Before the pyruvates from glycolysis can feed into the citric acid cycle, they must undergo a transition reaction. The pyruvate is converted into a 2-carbon acetyl group as the third carbon is lost as CO2. The acetyl group is attached to coenzyme A to form acetyl-CoA.
    2. The 2-carbon acetyl-CoA combines with the 4-carbon oxaloacetate of the citric acid cycle to form 6-carbon citrate.
    3. Citrate is converted to isocitrate.
    4. The 6-carbon isocitrate is oxidized by NAD+ to produce reduced NADH and 5-carbon alpha-ketoglutarate. (One carbon is lost as CO2.)
    5. The 5-carbon alpha-ketoglutarate is oxidized by NAD+ to produce reduced NADH and 4-carbon succinyl-CoA. (One carbon is lost as CO2.)
    6. Oxidation of succinyl-CoA produces succinate and one GTP that is converted to ATP.
    7. Oxidation of succinate by FAD produces reduced FADH2 and fumarate.
    8. Fumarate is converted into malate.
    9. Oxidation of malate by NAD+ produces reduced NADH and oxaloacetate.

    The two molecules of acetyl-CoA from the transition reaction enter the citric acid cycle. This results in the formation of 6 molecules of NADH, two molecules of FADH2, two molecules of ATP, and four molecules of CO2. The NADH and FADH2 molecules then carry electrons to the electron transport system for further production of ATPs by oxidative phosphorylation.
  3. samay.

    samay. Guest

    4- Lactose ...
    a- is a non reducing sugar ...................................F
    b- may be detected in the urine of pregnant woman .....................T
    c- is a major constituent of seminal fluid .....................................F
    d- is galactosyl glucose ..............................................................T
    e- is catabolised by the liver .......................................................F

    5- Concerning carbohydrates ....
    a- surose is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose .............................T
    b- cereal grains contain less than 40% starch .....................................F
    c- cellulose is a fructose polysaccharide .............................................F
    d- a normal diet contains less than 60 g of carbohydrate daily .............F
    e- dietary carbohydrate is oxidised in the body to carbon dioxide and water .....T

    6- Muscle glycogen ...
    a- metabolism cannot yield free glucose ...........................................T
    b- metabolism is independent of the enzyme phosphorylase ...............F
    c- metabolism only generates ATP under aerobic conditions ................F
    d- is entirely intracellular .................................................................T
    e- is released into the circulation in response to glucocorticoids ...........T

    7- Vitamin K
    a- is synthesised by bacteria ...................................T
    b- is stored in large quantites in the liver ..................F
    c- is necessary for the synthesis of factor VII ...........T
    d- is necessary for the synthesis of factor IX ............T
    e- deficiency causes hypothrombinaemia .................T

    8- Plasma concentration of the following substances are typically raised in pregnancy .
    a- caerulopasmin ..........................T
    b- albumin ...................................F
    c- vitamin B12 .............................F
    d- urea .......................................F
    e- pituitary gonadotrophins ...........F

    9- Potassium
    a- is mainly intacellular .......................................T
    b- plasma levels vary in proportion to intracellular levels ......................F
    c- plasma levels are decreased in Addison's disease ............................F
    d- plasma levels are increased in diabetic ketoacidosis .........................T
    e- deficiency occurs with prolonged vomiting .......................................T

    10- In the neonate at birth ....
    a- oxygenated haemoglobin is a less effective buffer than deoxygenated haemoglobin .........T
    b- more than 50% of the circulating haemoglobin is HbF ........................T
    c- oxygen dissociation from haemoglobin is promoted by acidosis ..........T
    d- the total haemoglobin concentration is generally above 15g/dl ............T
    e- red blood celll 2,3 diphosphoglyceric acid is absent ............................F

    11- The concentration of urine ...
    a- is due to passive reabsorption of water ......................................T
    b- is completed in the loop of Henle ...............................................F
    c- occurs progressively along the proximal tubule ...........................T
    d- is dependent upon arginine vasopressin .....................................T
    e- is related to the osmolarity of the interstitial fluid of the renal medulla ...T

    12- In the human , neonate , compared with the adult .
    a- the liver has less ability to conjugate bilirubin ...............................T
    b- the blood brain barrier is less permeable to bilirubin .....................F
    c- heat regulation is more effective .................................................F
    d- red blood cells have greater affinity for oxygen ............................T
    e- the haemoglobin concentration is greater .....................................T

    13- Gastrointestinal absorption of .
    a- dietary glucose depends upon intact pancreatic function ....................F
    b- vit B12 requires gastric acid ............................................................F
    c- fats is accomplished by the transport of chylomicrons from the intestinal lumen .........T
    d- iron may be reduced by vitamin C administration .............................F
    e- unhydrolised polysaccarides does not occur .....................................T

    14- Concerning the absorption of iron .
    a- it occurs mainly in the ileum ..........................F
    b- it normally represents 5-15% of the oral intake ............................T
    c- its absorption is promoted by bile salts ........................................F
    d- 10-15 mg dietary iron required daily by a nonpregnant women between 20-40 years of age ........T
    e- it occurs in the ferric form .........................................................F

    15- During the normal cell cycle .......
    a- the principal phase of deoxyribonuclic acid (DNA) synthesis is G1........F
    b- a tetraploid quantity of DNA is present at the end of G2 .....................T
    c- G2 is the post - mitotic resting phase ................................................F
    d- cells are generally senstive to antimetabolites in the S phase .............T
    e- the DNA is completely replicated several times ..................................T
  4. samay.

    samay. Guest

    MARCH 1998

    1- The oxidation of pyruvate to carbon dioxide .
    a- occurs exclusively in mitochondria ...................................................T
    b- can occur under anaerobic conditions ...............................................F
    c- involves intermediates that are also involved in amino acid catabolism.......T
    d- is regulated by the concentration of acetyl coenzyme A in the cell .......T
    e- is imparied in thiamine deficiency states ...........................................T

    2- Uric Acid ..
    a- is formed from the breakdown of purines ...................................T
    b- is raised is serum during normal pregnancy ................................F
    c- is increased in serum during thiazide diuretic therapy ...................T
    d- is reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubule ...................................T
    e- is excreted unchange in the urine ................................................T

    3- Creatinine ..
    a- is filtered out by the glomerulus .....................................................T
    b- is reabsorbed significantly by the proximal tubules ...........................F
    c- plasma concentration increases after protein ingestion .....................T
    d- has a plasma clearance rate equivalent to renal plasma flow .............F
    e- plasma concentration increases during the first tirmester of pregnancy ......F

    4- Plasma albumin binds the following .
    a- free fatty acids ................................T
    b- triglycerides ....................................F
    c- oestradiol .......................................T
    d- bilirubin .........................................T
    e- iron ions ........................................F

    5- In the digestive system .
    a- polysaccharides are broken down mainly in the stomach ....................F
    b- one molecule of sucrose forms two molecules of glucose ....................F
    c- glucose transport into the cell depends upon the active transport of sodium ions ..........T
    d- fructose is mainly absorbed by simple diffusion .................................F
    e- lactose activity increases during childhood ........................................F

    6- Methionine .
    a- is an essenital amino acid ......................................T
    b- is a sulphur containing amino acid ..........................T
    c- cannot be converted to cystine by the fetal liver ......F
    d- cannot cross the placenta ......................................F
    e- is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule in the kidneys .........T

    7- Tetrahydrofolic acid ....
    a- is involved in purine synthesis .........................................................T
    b- is a precursor of folic acid ...............................................................F
    c- is a coenzyme in amino acid synthesis ..............................................F
    d- catalyses the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate ...............F
    e- activity is inhibited by methotrexate .................................................T

    8- Deficiency of the following substances and diseases are correctly matched ..
    a- thiamine : pellagra .........................................................................F
    b- cyanocoblalmine : microcytic anaemia ..............................................F
    c- niacin : beriberi ..............................................................................F
    d- folates : sprue ................................................................................T
    e- ascorbic acid : night blindness .........................................................F

    9- Fetal pulmonary surfactant ...
    a- contains less than 10% lipid ............................................................F
    b- can be detected in amniotic fluid ......................................................T
    c- contains phosphatidylglycerol ..........................................................T
    d- is predominantly dipalmitol-phosphatidylcholine ..................................T
    e- is more than 40% albumin ..............................................................F

    10- Standard bicarbonate in blood ...
    a- is usually more than 30 mmol/l ......................................................F
    b- is increased with chronic carbon dioxide retention ............................T
    c- is decreased with persistent vomiting ..............................................F
    d- is decreased in renal failure ...........................................................T
    e- is decreased in severe diarrhoea ....................................................T

    11- Hyperkalaemia occurs in associated with .
    a- chronic diarrhoea ..........................................................................F
    b- renal tubular acidosis ....................................................................T
    c- hypoparathyrodism .......................................................................F
    d- hormone-secreting tumors of the bronchus .....................................F
    e- primary hyperaldosteronism ...........................................................F

    12- DNA .
    a- contains no cytosine ......................................................................F
    b- has a background of ribose ............................................................F
    c- is usually single stranded in mammalian cells ...................................F
    d- is cleaved by restriction enzymes ...................................................T
    e- irrversibly damaged in vitro by heating to 75C .................................F

    13- Pancreatic glucogen ..
    a- is secreted by the beta cells ...........................................................F
    b- is a steroid hormone .....................................................................F
    c- secretion is inversely proportional to the blood glucose concentration ...T
    d- increases the breakdown of liver glycogen .......................................T
    e- increases the breadown of triglycerides ............................................T

    14- Biochemical abnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus include .
    a- increased breakdown of protein .....................................................T
    b- decreased plasma levels of free fatty acids .....................................F
    c- increased serum cholesterol concentrations .....................................T
    d- decreased glycosylation of haemoglobin ..........................................F
    e- a decrease in the plasma concentration of low density lipoproteins .....F

    15- The following substances are normally synthesised in the liver .
    a- glucagon ......................................................................................F
    b- vitamin A .....................................................................................F
    c- cholesterol ...................................................................................T
    d- immunoglobulins ...........................................................................F
    e- prothrombin .................................................................................T

    16- Concerning the genetic control of protein synthesis ...
    a- mature messenger RNA contains introns .........................................F
    ** Introns ......non coding gene .
    ** Extrons .....coding gene .
    b- A codon has 3- base sequences .....................................................T
    c- each amino acid has a single codon ................................................F
    d- trasfer RNA has anticodon recognition sites .....................................T
    e- each transfer RNA carries a specific amino acid ..............................T

    17- 2,3 diphosphoglycerate ...
    a- is present at higher concentration in maternal erythrocytes than fetal erythrocytes ..........T
    b- binds to HbA more avidly than to HbF .............................................T
    c- increases the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen ..............................F
    d- is phospholipid ..............................................................................F
    e- is synthesised by the pentose phophate pathway .............................T

    18- The conjugation of bilirubin ..
    a- takes place in the hepatocytes .......................................................T
    b- is catalysed by UDP glucuronyl transferase .....................................T
    c- is inhibited by phenobarbitone ........................................................F
    d- renders it water soluble .................................................................T
    e- is imparied in aculte biliary obstruction ...........................................F
  5. vinita.

    vinita. Guest

    September 1998

    1- Concerning folic acid .....
    a- it is a water soluble vitamin ..............................................................T
    b- conversion of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate is inhibited by methotrexate .........T
    c- red cell folate concentration can be reduced by phenytoin .................T
    d- tetrahydrofolic acid is a carrier of one - carbon units ........................T
    e- it is involved in the synthesis of purines ..........................................T

    2- 2,3 diphosphoglycerate ...
    a- is present at higher concentration in maternal erythrocytes than fetal erythrocytes ..........T
    b- binds to HbA more avidly than to HbF .............................................T
    c- increases the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen ..............................F
    d- is phospholipid ..................................................................................F
    e- is synthesised by the pentose phophate pathway .............................T

    3- Haematopoesis of the fetus ...
    a- results in nucleated erythrocytes early in development ......................T
    b- occurs in the yolk sac in the first month ............................................T{Begins in yolk sac 2-8 wks }
    c- does not occur in the bone marrow until term .....................................F
    d- is predominantly hepatic during the 4th month ..................................T
    e- does not require folic acid ....................................................................T

    4- Iron ...
    a- is altered to the ferric state after absorption .....................................F
    b- is transported by apoferritin ...........................................................F
    c- is readily excreted by the kidney ....................................................F
    d- retention in the body is enhanced by chelating agents ......................F
    e- requirement during normal pregnancy is approximately 1 mg/day ....F

    5- Cholecalciferol ( Vit D ) ...
    a- promotes the absorption of calcium from the gut ..............................T
    b- is 25-hydroxylated in the liver ........................................................T
    c- is synthesised in the skin ...............................................................T
    d- is 1-hydroxylated in the kidney ......................................................T
    e- is the most active in the 1,25 dihydroxyl form .................................T

    6- Excess .....
    a- vit C causes haemorrhage .............................................................F
    b- vit D causes renal faliure ...............................................................T
    c- vit K causes thrombosis .................................................................F
    d- vit E causes azoospermia ...............................................................F
    e- vit A causes headache ...................................................................T

    7- Concerning carbon dioxide ..
    a- it is mainly carried in the blood as carbaminohaemoglobin ................F
    b- 10 -15% is carried in the blood in simple solution .............................T
    c- it diffuses across the placenta more readily than oxygen ...................T
    d- it is displaced more easily from fetal blood after oxygenation .............T
    e- it is more soluble in the body fluids than oxygen ..............................T

    8- Chemicals are solubilised in the liver by ....
    a- glucuronide formation ...................................................................T
    b- transamination .............................................................................T
    c- bile salt conjugation ......................................................................T
    d- acetylation ...................................................................................T
    e- carboxylation ...............................................................................F

    9- Unconjugated bilirubin ....
    a- is normally present in the plasma in lower concentration than conjugated bilirubin .........F
    b- circulates in the plasma bound to albumin .......................................T
    c- is not excreted in the urine ............................................................T
    d- does not cross the blood - brain barrier ..........................................T
    e- is bound to specific proteins in the liver cells ...................................T

    10- Massenger ribonucleic acid ( mRNA ) ...
    a- is a double stranded polymer .........................................................F
    b- is transcribed from DNA in the nucleus ............................................T
    c- is not present in reticulocytes .........................................................F
    d- contains thymine ...........................................................................F
    e- is not present in oocytes ................................................................F

    11- Glycogen ........
    a- is a polymer of glucose residues ....................................................T
    b- is predominantly found in cytoplasm ...............................................T
    c- is mainly stored in the liver .............................................................T
    d- is cleaved by phosphorylase to glucose - 1- phosphate .....................T
    e- breakdown is inhibited by adrenaline ...............................................F

    12- Hyperkalemia is a characteristic finding in .............
    a- primary aldosteronism ...................................................................F
    b- treatment with spironolactone ........................................................T
    c- hyperparathyroidism .....................................................................F
    d- adrenocorticotrophic hormone secreting tumours of the bronchus ......F
    e- renal faliure .................................................................................T

    13- Glucose .......
    a- is predominantly absorbed in the terminal ileum ...............................F
    b- stimulates the secretion of glucagon .................................................F
    c- can be synthesised from pyruvate ....................................................T
    d- is a disaccharide ............................................................................F
    e- is the only metabolic substrate for cardiac muscle .............................F

    14- Concerning oxygenation of fetal blood ..
    a- the fetal - maternal Pco2 gradient facilitates maternal - fetal oxygen transfer ..............T
    b- fetal haemoglobin is less influenced by 2,3 diphosphglyceric acid concentration than adult haemoglobin ........................................T
    c- the fetal blood oxygen dissociation curve lies to the right of the maternal curve ............F
    d- the uptake of oxygen decreases fetal red cell buffering capacity ...................T
    e- uptake of oxygen by fetal blood is associated with a shift of chloride into fetal red cells ........F

    15- Intracellular concentration of free calcium ..
    a- is greater than that of extracellular free calcium ..............................F
    b- may be influenced by voltage-gated membrane channels .................T
    c- may be influenced by the activity of inositol triphosphate ..................T
    d- binds to calmodulin .......................................................................T
    e- inactivates trophonin .....................................................................F

    16- Bicarbonate ....
    a- ions are reabsorbed from renal tubular fluid ....................................T
    b- plasma concentration rises in respiratory acidosis ............................T
    c- plasma concentration falls in pregnancy ..........................................T
    d- in blood is predominantly carried by red cells ..................................F
    e- is one of the unmeasured anions causing the anion gap ....................F
  6. vinita.

    vinita. Guest

    March 1999

    1- The conversion of glucose to lactic acid .
    a- occurs in a single enzymatic reaction ....................F
    b- is the only pathway for the synthesis of ATP in the red blood cell ......T
    c- is a reversible process in skeletal muscle ........................................T
    d- is inhibited by high cellular concentration of ATP ..............................T
    e- occurs in skeletal muscle when the availabilty of oxgyen is limited ....T

    2- Ketone bodies ...
    a- can be utilised by the fetal brain .....................................................F
    b- include acetoacetate .....................................................................T
    c- are water soluble ..........................................................................T
    d- are synthesised in skeletal muscle ..................................................F
    e- can be utilised during starvation .....................................................T

    3- Noradrenaline ...
    a- is a derivative of arginine ..............................................................F
    b- is a precursor of adrenaline ...........................................................T
    c- acts predominantly on alpha receptors ............................................T
    d- is catabolised to vanillylmandelic acid .............................................T
    e- is metabolised by catechol-O-methyl transferase .............................T

    4- ABO antigens are ...
    a- glycoproteins ................................................................................T
    b- found only on erythrocytes ............................................................F
    c- major histocompatibility antigens ...................................................F
    d- not immunogenic during pregnancy ................................................F
    e- located on membranes ..................................................................T

    5- Nitrogen balance is ...
    a- positive during pregnancy ..............................................................T
    b- positive during prolonged immobilisation .........................................F
    c- negative during protein starvation ..................................................T
    d- negative in the untreated diabetic ..................................................T
    e- positive during recovery from debilitating illness ..............................T

    6- In the fetal lung ..
    a- bronchial cartilage formation commences at 18-24 weeks of gestation ......F
    b- type II alveolar cells first appear at 16-20 weeks gestation ................F
    c- sphingomyelin is the most common phospholipid present at term ........T
    d- phospholipid release is increased by endogenous adrenaline ..............T
    e- phospholipid production is decreased by exogenous corticosteroids ......F

    7- Concerning acidosis
    a- the ratio of bicarbonate ions to carbonic acid in extracellular fluid is decreased ...........T
    b- in respiratory acidosis there is reduced renal hydrogen ion secretion .......F
    c- in respiratory acidosis there is an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood ......T
    d- loss of bicarbonate in diarrhoea causes a metabolic acidosis ................T
    e- in compensating metabolic acidosis , Pco2 is increased ........................F

    8- Fetal haemoglobin ....
    a- contains four polypeptide chains .....................................................T
    b- does not contain iron ......................................................................F
    c- has no alpha chains .......................................................................F
    d- is more resistant to alkaline denaturation than is adult haemoglobin .....T
    e- has the same structure as adult myoglobin ......................................F

    9- The intestinal absorption of calcium is ..
    a- decreased in renal faliure ..............................................................T
    b- decreased by the ingestion of large amounts of some cereals ............T
    c- increased by the oral intake of phosphate .........................................F
    d- increased by 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol .......................................T
    e- decreased in the presence of steatorrhoea .......................................T

    10- The following amino acids found in human proteins .
    a- serine ..........................................................................................T
    b- methionine ...................................................................................T
    c- thyramine .....................................................................................F
    d- histamine ......................................................................................F
    e- arginine ........................................................................................T

    11- Iron ions ...
    a- diffuse passively into erythropoietic cells .........................................F
    b- bind to transferrin .........................................................................T
    c- are taken up by hepatocytes ..........................................................T
    d- are necessary for cytochrome synthesis ..........................................T
    e- are absorbed predominantly by the ileum ........................................F

    12- Folic acid ...
    a- requires gastric intrinsic factor for its absorption ...............................F
    b- daily requirement is about 40mg .....................................................F
    c- is found in higher concentration in fetal blood than in maternal blood ....T
    d- deficiency leads to microcytic anaemia .............................................F
    e- is fat soluble ..................................................................................F

    13- Concerning immunoglobulins in pregnancy ...
    a- the concentration of IgG is ten times greater in the maternal circulation than it is in the fetal circulation at term .................................F
    b- the concentration of IgA in cord blood is higher than that in maternal blood .............F
    c- IgE crosses the placenta readily ......................................................F
    d- the four classes of IgG cross the placenta readily ...............................T
    e- fetal IgM is dimeric ..........................................................................F

    14- The conjugation of bilirubin ..
    a- takes place in the hepatocytes .........................................................T
    b- is catalysed by UDP glucuronyl transferase .......................................T
    c- is inhibited by phenobarbitone ..........................................................F
    d- renders it water soluble ..................................................................T
    e- is imparied in aculte biliary obstruction .............................................F

    15- Obstruction of the lower end of the common bile duct is suggested by ...
    a- an elevated serum conjugated bilirubin concentration ........................T
    b- a reduced serum alkaline phophatase concentration .........................F
    c- the presence of urobilinogen in the urine .........................................F
    d- increased conjugated bilirubin in the urine .......................................T
    e- a reduced serum cholesterol concentration ......................................F

    16- Oxygen .........
    a- binds to trivalent iron in the haem molecule .....................................F
    b- is carried as four molecules per molecule of haemoglobin .................T
    c- haemoglobin dissociation is linear ...................................................F
    d- uptake reduces red cell buffering capacity .......................................T
    e- is released from haemoglobin when the concentration of 2,3 diphosphglyceric acid is decreased ......................................................F

    17- Plasma osmolarity in the human ...
    a- is normally about 290 miliosmoles /kg in the nonpregnant state ...........T
    b- increases during the first trimester of pregnancy ...............................F
    c- is closely controlled by plasma protein concentration ..........................F
    d- is regulated by arginine vasopressin ................................................T
    e- regulates the sensation of thirst .......................................................T

    18- In the digestive system .
    a- polysaccharides are broken down mainly in the stomach ....................F
    b- one molecule of sucrose forms two molecules of glucose ....................F
    c- glucose transport into the cell depends upon the active transport of sodium ions ..........T
    d- fructose is mainly absorbed by simple diffusion .................................F
    e- lactose activity increases during childhood ........................................F

    19- Gastrointestinal absorption of .
    a- dietary glucose depends upon intact pancreatic function ....................F
    b- vit B12 requires gastric acid ............................................................F
    c- fats is accomplished by the transport of chylomicrons from the intestinal lumen .........T
    d- iron may be reduced by vitamin C administration .............................F
    e- unhydrolised polysaccarides does not occur .....................................T

    20- Plasma proteins
    a- which combine with drugs enhance their pharmacological activity ........F
    b- play no role in the plasma buffering system ......................................F
    c- combine with lipids to facilitate transport ............................................T
    d- are restored within 24 hours after haemorrhage ................................F
    e- are normally present in a concentration of about 7g/L .........................T

    21- Surfactant .......
    a- is formed mainly in the placenta ......................................................F
    b- levels in amniotic fluid diminish after 33 weeks of gestation ................F
    c- formation can be inferred from the lecithin - sphingomyelin ratio in amniotic fluid .........T
    d- contains palmitic acid .....................................................................T
    e- decreases the surface tension in pulmonary alveoli ...........................T

    22- Concerning nitrogen metabolism ....
    a- ingestion of complex proteins is essential for the maintenance of nitrogen balance .....T
    b- there are eight essenital amino acids ...............................................T
    c- the minimum daily requirement of each essential amino acid is 0.3-1.0g ..............F
    d- amino acid nitrogen is largely excreted as urea ................................T
    e- a protein poor, but energy sufficient diet will cause a decreased excretion of creatinine .......T
  7. sama.

    sama. Guest

    PLASMA PROTEINS
    a-which combine with drugs enhance their pharmacological activity-........F

    b-play no role in plasma buffering system-........................F
    THE PLASMA PROTEIN ARE ..
    1) MOST PLENTIFUL BUFFER OF THE BODY.
    2) INTRACELLULAR AND EXTRACELLULAR.
    3) ABOUT 75% OF BUFFERING CAPACITY REIDES IN INTRACELLULAR PROTEIN....HOWEVER...MOST CELLS ARE POORLY PERMEABLE TO HYDROGEN AND BICARBONATE IONS AND THE ABILITY OF INTRACELLULAR BUFFERS TO EXTRACELLULAR ACID BASE ABONRMALILTIES ISDELAY

    c- combine with lipids to facilitate transport-.........................................T
    d-are restored within 24 hours after haemorrhage-...............................F
    e- are normally present in a conc of about 7 g/l-...................................T
    1) TOTAL PLASMA PROTEIN 70-85g/L..OF WHICH
    *** ALBUMIN - 45g/L - MAINTAIN ONCOTIC PRESSURE AND TRANSPORT LIPIDS AND STEROID HORMONES / DURGS.
    *** GLOBULINS....ALPHA AND BETA GLOBULINS ARE PRODUCED IN THE LIVER AND TRANSPORT LIPIDS AND FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS ...GAMMA GLOBULINS ARE ANTIBODIES PRODUCED BY LYMPHOCYTES.........
  8. sama.

    sama. Guest

    September 1999

    1- Epidermal growth factor ....
    a- is mitogenic ..................................................................................T
    b- synthesis is stimulated by oestradiol ...............................................T
    c- is a steroid molecule ......................................................................F
    [ polypeptide ].
    d- is found in endometrium ................................................................T
    e- binds to a receptor on the nuclear membrane ..................................F

    2- Intracellular fluid differs from extracellular fluid in that .....
    a- it forms the larger proportion of total body water ..............................T
    b- its volume can be more readily measured ........................................F
    c- it has a higher concentration of potassium ........................................T
    d- its volume is more directly regulated by the kidnerys ........................F
    e- it has a lower concentration of sodium .............................................T

    3- Injected histamine produces .....
    a- a fall in blood pressure ...................................................................T
    b- decreased gastric secretion of hydrochloric acid ...............................F
    c- brochodilation ................................................................................F
    d- bradycardia ..................................................................................F
    e- peripheral vasoconstriction .............................................................F

    4- The following are disaccharides ....
    a- glucose .........................................................................................F
    b- maltose ........................................................................................T
    c- sucrose .........................................................................................T
    d- fructose ........................................................................................F
    e- lactose ..........................................................................................T

    5- The following are actively transported across the placenta from the maternal to fetal circulation .
    a- histadine ......................................................................................T
    b- alcohol .........................................................................................F
    c- ascorbic acid .................................................................................T
    d- iron ..............................................................................................T
    e- intrinsic factor ...............................................................................T

    6- Urea ........
    a- is formed mainly in the kidney ........................................................F
    b- contains two amine (NH2) groups ....................................................T
    c- is formed by transamination form ketogluterate ................................T
    d- is an end product of nitrogen metabolism in the fetus ........................T
    e- excretion is unrelated to protein intake .............................................F

    7- Concerning amniotic fluid ..........
    a- it has a protein concentration similar to that of maternal plasma ........F
    b- it is mainly a filtrate of maternal plasma during the second half of pregnancy .........F
    c- the highest bilirubin concentration occur during the last trimester .......F
    d- there is an increase in the alpha fetoprotein concentration throughout pregnancy ........F
    e- it contains cells of maternal origin ...................................................F

    8- Concerning the absorption of fats ............
    a- there is a major degree of lipase activity in the stomach ...................F
    b- pancreatic lipase is the most important enzyme for fat digestion .........T
    c- bile salts contribute to the formation of micelles ................................T
    d- micelles have a hydrophobic coat ....................................................F
    e- chylomicrons have a core of triglycerides .........................................T

    9- Ketone bodies .....
    a- are synthesised in the brain ...........................................................F
    b- include aceto-acetate ....................................................................T
    c- are water soluble ..........................................................................T
    d- are synthesised in skeletal muscle .................................................F
    e- can be uitlised during starvation .....................................................T

    10- Serum alkatine phosphatase activity characteristically is raised in ...
    a- senile osteoporosis ........................................................................F
    b- intrahepatic cholestasis ..................................................................T
    c- extensive Paget's disease of bone ...................................................T
    d- prostatic carcinoma ........................................................................F
    e- pregnancy .....................................................................................T

    11- Vitamin A .......
    a- can be synthesised in the skin .........................................................F
    b- is derived from B-carotene ..............................................................T
    c- is toxic to tissues in high doses ........................................................T
    d- is a teratogen ................................................................................T
    e- is required for rhodopsin synthesis ...................................................T

    12- The normal metabolic response to an operation include ..
    a- increased diuresis during the first 24 hours ......................................T
    b- renal retention of sodium .................................................................T
    c- a rise in the plasma sodium level .....................................................F
    d- increased renal excretion of nitrogen ...............................................T
    e- increased renal excretion of potassium .............................................T

    13- Folic acid ........
    a- deficiency causes a megaloblastic bone marrow .................................T
    b- is hydroxycoblamin ........................................................................F
    c- is present in green vegetables..........................................................T
    d- is predominantly absorbed from the large intestine ..........................F
    e- is destroyed by boiling water ...........................................................T

    14- Iodine metabolism ..
    a- a daily intake of 100mg of iodine is required to prevent goitre ............F
    b- inorganic iodine is actively trapped by the thyroid gland ....................T
    c- iodine trapping is stimulated by thyroid stimulating hormone .............T
    d- iodine trapping is stimulated by perchlotate ion ...............................F
    e- clearance of iodine by the thyroid is decreased during pregnancy .....T

    15- The following are essential amino acids .....
    a- valine ..........................................................................................T
    b- thiamine ......................................................................................F
    c- cystamine ....................................................................................F
    d- glycine ........................................................................................F
    e- lysine ..........................................................................................T

    16- Potassium depletion causes ....
    a- extramuscular acidosis ...................................................................T
    b- muscular weakness ........................................................................F
    c- diarrhoea ......................................................................................F
    d- cardiac arrhythmias .......................................................................T
    e- renal tubular damage .....................................................................T

    17- The conjugation of bilirubin ..
    a- takes place in the hepatocytes .......................................................T
    b- is catalysed by UDP glucuronyl transferase .....................................T
    c- is inhibited by phenobarbitone ........................................................F
    d- renders it water soluble .................................................................T
    e- is imparied in aculte biliary obstruction ...........................................F

    18- Chylomicrons ...
    a- are synthesised in adipose sites ......................................................F
    b- are a major component of bile ........................................................F
    c- contain triglycerides ........................................................................T
    d- are predominantly composed of free fatty acids .................................F
    e- are not found in the peripheral circulation .........................................F
  9. priya.

    priya. Guest

    March 2000


    1- Concerning pH .....
    a- in blood, pH is regulated predominantly by bicarbonate ......................T
    b- the higher the pH, the higher the hydrogen ion concentration .............F
    c- the pH of gastric juice is 5.5 ............................................................F
    d- the pH of urine decreases after the ingestion of ammonium chloride ......T
    e- the pH inside cells is higher than that in plasma ..................................F

    2- The conversion of glucose to lactic acid .
    a- occurs in a single enzymatic reaction ....................F
    b- is the only pathway for the synthesis of ATP in the red blood cell ......T
    c- is a reversible process in skeletal muscle ........................................T
    d- is inhibited by high cellular concentration of ATP ..............................T
    e- occurs in skeletal muscle when the availabilty of oxgyen is limited ....T

    3- Glucagon ........
    a- is a polypeptide hormone ...............................................................T
    b- is secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets ...........................F
    c- causes muscle glycogenolysis ..........................................................T
    d- has a half life of 5-10 minutes in the circulation .................................T
    e- secretion is stimulated by cortisol .....................................................T

    4- Concerning preostaglandins ..(PG) .
    a- arachidonic acid is the precursor for PG biosynthesis ........................T
    b- PG synthetase ( cyclooxygenase ) catalyses arachidonic acid conversion to PG endoperoxides .....T
    c- nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit PG dehydrogenase ..........F
    d- mefenamic acid is a more potent inhibitor of PG synthesis than aspirin .....T
    e- PGF is excreted unchanged in urine ...................................................F

    5- Amniotic fluid ....
    a- at term is hyperosmolar compared to fetal plasma ............................F
    b- normally contains maternal and fetal cells ........................................T
    c- contains a higher concentration of alpha fetoprotein at 16 weeks than at term ..........T
    d- contains bilirubin ..........................................................................T
    e- contains phospholipids ..................................................................T

    6- Oestradiol ......
    a- is formed by aromatisation of testosterone ......................................T
    b- does not bind to albumin ................................................................F
    c- is formed in tissues other than the ovaries .......................................T
    d- is the most abundant oestrogen in late pregnancy .............................F
    e- binds to a specific cell surface receptor ............................................F

    7- 2,3 diphosphoglycerate ( 2,3 DPG ) ..
    a- is present at higher concentration in maternal erythrocytes than fetal erythrocytes .............T
    b- binds more avidly to haemoglobin A than to haemoglobin F ..................T
    c- increases the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen ...............................F
    d- is a phospholipid .............................................................................F
    e- is synthesised by the pentose phosphate pathway ..............................T

    8- Ethanol ..
    a- consumed is excess stimulation fatty acid oxidation ................F
    b- suppresses arginine vasopressin secretion ............................T
    c- promotes gluconeogenesis ...................................................F
    d- is oxidised to acetaldehyde ..................................................T
    e- is metabolised predominantly by the liver ..............................T

    9- Glucocorticoids ..
    a- promote hepatic gluconeogenesis ....................T
    b- supress uptake of glucose by muscles ..............T
    c- promote protein breakdown .............................T
    d- promote fat breakdown ...................................T
    e- increase glycolysis in adipose tissue .................T

    10- Fibrinogen ..
    a- levels are usually low during pregnancy .......................................F
    b- is a substrate for thrombin ...........................................................F
    c- at elevated plasma levels causes a reduction in the erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR) .......F
    d- is synthesised in the liver ............................................................T
    e- is a Bence Jones protein .............................................................F

    11- Concerning maternal - fetal placental transfer .....
    a- oxygen transfer is facilitated by the fetal oxygen dissociation curve being to the right of that of the mother ..............................F
    b- bicarbonate ions diffuse across the placenta more easily than carbon dioxide ............F
    c- glucose is transferred by simple diffusion ...........................................F
    d- immunoglobulin G crosses the placenta .............................................T
    e- the placenta is impermeable to maternal ketone bodies ......................T

    12- Vitamin K
    a- is synthesised by bacteria ...................................T
    b- is stored in large quantites in the liver ..................F
    c- is necessary for the synthesis of factor VII ...........T
    d- is necessary for the synthesis of factor IX ............T
    e- deficiency causes hypothrombinaemia .................T





    13- Plasma concentration of the following substances are typically raised in pregnancy .
    a- caerulopasmin ..............................................................................T
    b- albumin .........................................................................................F
    c- vitamin B12 ...................................................................................F
    d- urea ..............................................................................................F
    e- pituitary gonadotrophins .................................................................F

    14- In one turn of the tricarboxylic acid cycle , three molecules of ..
    a- carbon dioxide (CO2) are produced .................................................F
    b- reduced (NADH) are produced .......................................................T
    c- reduced (FADH2) are produced ........................................................T
    d- guanosine triphosphate (GTP) are produced ......................................T
    e- acetyl co-enzyme A (acetyl COA) are used .......................................T

    15- Lactose ...
    a- is a non reducing sugar ................................................................F
    b- may be detected in the urine of pregnant woman ............................T
    c- is a major constituent of seminal fluid .............................................F
    d- is galactosyl glucose .....................................................................T
    e- is catabolised by the liver ...............................................................F
  10. priya.

    priya. Guest

    September 2000


    1- The oxidation of pyruvate to carbon dioxide .
    a- occurs exclusively in mitochondria ...................................................T
    b- can occur under anaerobic conditions ...............................................F
    c- involves intermediates that are also involved in amino acid catabolism.......T
    d- is regulated by the concentration of acetyl coenzyme A in the cell .......T
    e- is imparied in thiamine deficiency states ...........................................T

    2- Enzyme activity can be modified by ...
    a- concentration of substrate ...............................................................T
    b- concentration of product ..................................................................T
    c- PH ..................................................................................................T
    d- temperature ...................................................................................T
    e- concentration of coenzyme ..............................................................T

    3- The rate of transfer of a substance into a cell by active transport ..
    a- may be unrelated to concentration gradient ......................................T
    b- is dependent upon molecular size .....................................................F
    c- is temperature dependent ...............................................................T
    d- has a fixed upper limit ...................................................................T
    e- is not reduced by the presence of a structurally similar substance .........T

    4- Fatty acids reaching the liver from the fat stores may be ....
    a- converted to glucose .......................................................................F
    b- conjugated with sulphate .................................................................F
    c- metabolised in the tricarboxylic acid cycle .........................................T
    d- incorporated into endogenous triglyceride .........................................T
    e- converted into ketones ....................................................................T

    5- Concerning folic acid .......
    a- it is a water soluble vitamin ............................................................T
    b- conversion of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate is inhibited by methotrexate ...............T
    c- red cell folate concentration can be reduced by phenytoin ...................T
    d- tetrahydroflic acid is a carrier of 1- carbon units .................................T
    e- it is involved in synthesis of purines ..................................................T

    6- Effects of insulin include ...
    a- increase in cellular growth ..............................................................T
    b- increased hepatic glycogen synthesis ................................................T
    c- decreased glycogen synthesis in muscle ...........................................F
    d- increased uptake of potassium ions in muscle ..........................................T
    e- increasedd uptake of potassium ions in adipose tissue .........................T

    7- Surfactant .....
    a- is a carbohydrate .........................................................................F
    b- contains significant amounts of 2,3 diphosphoglycerate ....................F
    c- is produced by type II alveolar epithelial cells .................................F
    d- is present in the fetal lung at 24 weeks of gestation .........................T
    e- production in the fetus increased by glucocorticoids ..........................T

    8- Histamine ...
    a- is identical to bradykinin ................................................................F
    b- is a derivative of histadine .............................................................T
    c- increases capillary permeability ......................................................T
    d- promotes gastric acid secretion .......................................................T
    e- inhibits the secretion of pepsin ........................................................F

    9- Cholesterol is ........
    a- synthesised in the liver ..................................................................T
    b- a C - 19 compound .......................................................................F
    c- synthesised from acetate ...............................................................T
    d- a major constituent of high density lipoproteins ................................F
    e- predominantly excreted unchanged in the urine ................................F

    10- Vitamin K is involoved in the formation of .....
    a- fibrinogen .....................................................................................F
    b- factor VIII ....................................................................................F
    c- factor IX .....................................................................................T
    d- prothrombin .................................................................................T
    e- heparin ........................................................................................F

    11- Plasma albumin binds the following .
    a- free fatty acids ..............................................................................T
    b- triglycerides .................................................................................F
    c- oestradiol ......................................................................................T
    d- bilirubin ........................................................................................T
    e- iron ions .......................................................................................F

    12- Within 48 hours of a major surgical operation there is an increase in ..
    a- adrenocorticotrophin secretion ........................................................T
    b- aldosterone secretion ......................................................................T
    c- arginine vasopressin secretion .........................................................T
    d- sodium excretion ...........................................................................F
    e- potassium excretion .......................................................................F

    13- Metabolic acidosis .....
    a- can result from potassium deficiency ..............................................F
    b- can result from excess consumption of sodium bicarbonate ...............F
    c- leads to an alteration in plasma bicarbonate levels ............................T
    d- occurs after the adiministration of ammonium chloride ......................F
    e- can be caused by persistant vomiting ...............................................F

    14- Conjugated bilirubin ...
    a- is produced from haemoglobin .......................................................F
    b- is a constituent of the amniotic fluid in the second trimester ..............F
    c- is lipid soluble ...............................................................................F
    d- is conjugated by the action of alkaline phosphatase .........................F
    e- has a normal blood level of about 500 mg/L ....................................F

    15- Ribonucleic acid (RNA) .
    a- contains deoxyribose .......................................F
    b- is composed of two mucleotide units ...............................................F
    c- is the main constituent of human chromosomes ................................F
    d- is the main constituent of ribosomes ................................................T
    e- is required during protein synthesis .......................................T

    16- Alkalosis can be caused by ...
    a- excessive vomiting .......................................................................T
    b- cardiac failure ................................................................................F
    c- hyperventilation .............................................................................T
    d- hyperaldosteronism ........................................................................T
    e- therapeutic doses of magnesium trisilicate ........................................T

    17- In the human , neonate , compared with the adult .
    a- the liver has less ability to conjugate bilirubin ...................................T
    b- the blood brain barrier is less permeable to bilirubin .........................F
    c- heat regulation is more effective .....................................................F
    d- red blood cells have greater affinity for oxygen ................................T
    e- the haemoglobin concentration is greater ........................................T

    18- 2,3 diphosphoglycerate ...
    a- is present at higher concentration in maternal erythrocytes than fetal erythrocytes ............T
    b- binds to HbA more avidly than to HbF .............................................T
    c- increases the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen ..............................F
    d- is phospholipid ..................................................................................F
    e- is synthesised by the pentose phophate pathway .............................T

    19- The parencymal cells of the liver ....
    a- can convert fructose to glucose .......................................................T
    b- synthesis urea ..............................................................................T
    c- cojugate bilirubin ..........................................................................T
    d- excrete bromsulphthalein ..............................................................T
    e- synthesis cholesterol .....................................................................T
  11. Guest

    Guest Guest

    **** March 2001 .....

    1- Uric Acid ..

    a- is formed from the breakdown of purines .............................................T
    b- is raised is serum during normal pregnancy ...........................................F
    c- is increased in serum during thiazide diuretic therapy ...........................T
    d- is reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubule ............................................T
    e- is excreted unchange in the urine ........................................................T


    2- The level of serum uric acid characterisitically ........
    a- falls with starvation .............................................................................F
    b- is higher in men than women ...............................................................T
    c- rises on taking corticosteriod therapy ..................................................F
    d- falls on treatment with 5g of aspirin daily ....................................................T
    e- increases in acute leukaemia .............................................................T

    3- Renal sodium retention is favoured by .........
    a- a high glomerular filtration rate ...........................................................T
    b- increased secretion of renin ...............................................................T
    c- haemoconcentration ..........................................................................T
    d- expansion of plasma volume ................................................................F
    e- a low renal blood flow ........................................................................T

    4- Deficiency of the following substances and diseases are correctly matched ..
    a- thiamine : pellagra ...........................................................................F
    b- cyanocoblalmine : microcytic anaemia ..................................................F
    c- niacin : beriberi ...............................................................................F
    d- folates : sprue ................................................................................................T
    e- ascorbic acid : night blindness ...........................................................F

    5- Fetal pulmonary surfactant ...
    a- contains less than 10% lipid ...............................................................F
    b- can be detected in amnioticfluid ........................................................T
    c- contains phosphatidylglycerol ............................................................T
    d- is predominantly dipalmitol-phosphatidylcholine .....................................T
    e- is more than 40% albumin .................................................................F

    6- Potassium ............
    a- is mainly intacellular ........................................................................T
    b- plasma levels vary in proportion to intracellular levels ............................F
    c- plasma levels are decreased in Addison's disease ..................................F
    d- plasma levels are increased in diabetic ketoacidosis ..............................T
    e- deficiency occurs with prolonged vomiting ..........................................T


    7- In the neonate at birth ....
    a- oxygenated haemoglobin is a less effective buffer than deoxygenated haemoglobin .........T
    b- more than 50% of the circulating haemoglobin is HbF ...............................T
    c- oxygen dissociation from haemoglobin is promoted by acidosis ........................T
    d- the total haemoglobin concentration is generally above 15g/dl .........................T
    e- red blood celll 2,3 diphosphoglyceric acid is absent ....................................F

    8- DNA ....
    a- contains no cytosine ........................................................................F
    b- has a background of ribose ..............................................................F
    c- is usually single stranded in mammalian cells ...................................F
    d- is cleaved by restriction enzymes .....................................................T
    e- irrversibly damaged in vitro by heating to 75C ...................................F

    9- Glycogen ........
    a- is a polymer of glucose residues .......................................................T
    b- is predominantly found in cytoplasm ...............................................T
    c- is mainly stored in the liver ................................................................T
    d- is cleaved by phosphorylase to glucose - 1- phosphate ...................T
    e- breakdown is inhibited by adrenaline ...............................................F

    10- Biochemical abnormalities associated with diabetes mellitus include ...

    a- increased breakdown of protein ..........................................................T
    b- decreased plasma levels of free fatty acids ..........................................F
    c- increased serum cholesterol concentrations .........................................T
    d- decreased glycosylation of haemoglobin .............................................F
    e- a decrease in the plasma concentration of low density lipoproteins .....F

    11- Concerning carbohydrates ....
    a- surose is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose ................................T
    b- cereal grains contain less than 40% starch ........................................F
    c- cellulose is a fructose polysaccharide ................................................F
    d- a normal diet contains less than 60 g of carbohydrate daily .............F
    e- dietary carbohydrate is oxidised in the body to carbon dioxide and water .....T

    12- Muscle glycogen ...
    a- metabolism cannot yield free glucose ...........................................T
    b- metabolism is independent of the enzyme phosphorylase ...............F
    c- metabolism only generates ATP under aerobic conditions ................F
    d- is entirely intracellular ...................................................................T
    e- is released into the circulation in response to glucocorticoids ...........T

    13- The following result in metabolic acidosis .....
    a- ketoacidosis ..................................................................................T
    b- muscular excercise .....................................................................T
    c- renal failure .................................................................................T
    d- hypoxia ..........................................................................................T
    e- acute respiratory failure ................................................................T

    14- L - glucose is ......
    a- apentose ......................................................................................F
    b- an aldose ...................................................................................T
    c- a ketose ........................................................................................F
    d- a mirror image of D - glucose .......................................................T
    e- identical in biological activity to D - glucose ...................................F

    15- Glucose .......
    a- is predominantly absorbed in the terminal ileum .............................F
    b- stimulates the secretion of glucagon .................................................F
    c- can be synthesised from pyruvate ....................................................T
    d- is a disaccharide ..........................................................................................F
    e- is the only metabolic substrate for cardiac muscle .............................F

    16- Massenger RNA ( mRNA ) ...
    a- synthesis is catalysed by RNA polymerase II ...................................T
    b- is an exact copy of sense DNA ...........................................................F
    c contains exons ............................................................................................T
    d- is measured by Western analysis ......................................................F
    e- translation occurs in the nucleus .......................................................F

    18- Concerning the genetic control of protein synthesis ...
    a- mature messenger RNA contains introns .........................................F
    b- A codon has 3- base sequences ......................................................T
    c- each amino acid has a single codon ................................................F
    d- trasfer RNA has anticodon recognition sites .....................................T
    e- each transfer RNA carries a specific amino acid ..............................T

    19- Concerning cells .......
    a- glycosylation takes place in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum ...........T
    b- low density lipoproteins attach to cell membrane receptors ................T
    c- glycoproteins are present on the cytosol surface of the plasma membrane .....F
    d- centrioles are composed of tubulin ......................................................T
    e- nuclear heterochromatin is genetically inactive ...................................T
  12. priya.

    priya. Guest

    19- Concerning cells .......
    a- glycosylation takes place in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum ...........T
    b- low density lipoproteins attach to cell membrane receptors ................T
    c- glycoproteins are present on the cytosol surface of the plasma membrane .....F
    d- centrioles are composed of tubulin ......................................................T
    e- nuclear heterochromatin is genetically inactive ...................................T

    20- The conjugation of bilirubin ..
    a- takes place in the hepatocytes ........................................................T
    b- is catalysed by UDP glucuronyl transferase .....................................T
    c- is inhibited by phenobarbitone .........................................................F
    d- renders it water soluble ...................................................................T
    e- is imparied in aculte biliary obstruction ............................................F
  13. priya.

    priya. Guest

    **** September 2001 .......

    1- Ketone bodies ...

    a- can be utilised by the fetal brain .....................................................F
    b- include acetoacetate ........................................................................T
    c- are water soluble .............................................................................T
    d- are synthesised in skeletal muscle ..................................................F
    e- can be utilised during starvation .....................................................T

    2- Intracellular fluid differs from extracellular fluid in that .......
    a- it forms the larger proportion of total body water .............................T
    b- its volume can be more readily measured .........................................F
    c- it has a higher concentration of potassium ..........................................T
    d- its volume is more directly regulated by the kidneys ........................F
    e- it has a lower concentration of sodium ................................................T

    3- The oxidation of pyruvate to carbon dioxide .
    a- occurs exclusively in
    mitochondria ..........................................................T
    b- can occur under anaerobic conditions ...............................................................F
    c- involves intermediates that are also involved in amino acid catabolism.......T
    d- is regulated by the concentration of acetyl coenzyme A in the cell .................T
    e- is imparied in thiamine deficiency states ....................................................T

    4- Creatinine ..
    a- is filtered out by the glomerulus ........................................................T
    b- is reabsorbed significantly by the proximal tubules ..............................F
    c- plasma concentration increases after protein ingestion .........................T
    d- has a plasma clearance rate equivalent to renal plasma flow ....................F
    e- plasma concentration increases during the first tirmester of pregnancy ......F

    5- ABO antigens are ...
    a- glycoproteins ..................................................................................T
    b- found only on erythrocytes ............................................................F
    c- major histocompatibility antigens ...................................................F
    d- not immunogenic during pregnancy ................................................F
    e- located on membranes ....................................................................T

    6- Haemoglobin ........
    a- has four porphyrin rings .................................................................T
    b- can carry four molecules of oxygen ................................................T
    c- binds carbon monoxide more readily than oxygen ................T
    d- is synthesised in mature erythrocytes ..............................................F
    e- contains two beta chains .................................................................T

    7- Iron ...
    a- is altered to the ferric state after absorption .....................................F
    b- is transported by apoferritin .............................................................F
    c- is readily excreted by the kidney ......................................................F
    d- retention in the body is enhanced by chelating agents ......................F
    e- requirement during normal pregnancy is approximately 1 mg/day ....F

    8- Cholecalciferol ( Vit D ) ...
    a- promotes the absorption of calcium from the gut ..............................T
    b- is 25-hydroxylated in the liver ..........................................................T
    c- is synthesised in the skin .................................................................T
    d- is 1-hydroxylated in the kidney ........................................................T
    e- is the most active in the 1,25 dihydroxyl form .................................T

    9- Excess .....
    a- vit C causes haemorrhage .............................................................F
    b- vit D causes renal faliure ...............................................................T
    c- vit K causes thrombosis .................................................................F
    d- vit E causes azoospermia ...............................................................F
    e- vit A causes headache ...................................................................T

    10- Folic acid ...
    a- requires gastric intrinsic factor for its absorption .....................................F
    b- daily requirement is about 40mg ..........................................................F
    c- is found in higher concentration in fetal blood than in maternal blood ....T
    d- deficiency leads to microcytic anaemia ...................................................F
    e- is fat soluble .......................................................................................F

    11- The conjugation of bilirubin ..
    a- takes place in the hepatocytes .........................................................T
    b- is catalysed by UDP glucuronyl transferase .......................................T
    c- is inhibited by phenobarbitone ..........................................................F
    d- renders it water soluble ..................................................................T
    e- is imparied in aculte biliary obstruction .............................................F

    12- Massenger ribonucleic acid ( mRNA ) ...
    a- is a double stranded polymer .........................................................F
    b- is transcribed from DNA in the nucleus ...........................................T
    c- is not present in reticulocytes .........................................................F
    d- contains thymine ...........................................................................F
    e- is not present in oocytes ................................................................F

    13- Concerning glycolysis .......
    a- it is the mobilisation of stored glucose units ............................................F
    b- most of the reactions occur in the mitochondria .................................T
    c- two molecules of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) are consumed per molecule of glucose .......................T
    d- there is net gain of two ATP molecules from the conversion of a glucose molecule to two pyruvate molecules ..........T
    e- the glucose to pyruvate pathway is present in all tissues ...........................................T

    14- The following substances are normally synthesised in the liver .
    a- glucagon ......................................................................................F
    b- vitamin A .....................................................................................F
    c- cholesterol ...................................................................................T
    d- immunoglobulins ..........................................................................F
    e- prothrombin .................................................................................T

    15- Hyperkalemia is a characteristic finding in .............
    a- primary aldosteronism .......................................................................F
    b- treatment with spironolactone ..............................................................T
    c- hyperparathyroidism ..........................................................................F
    d- adrenocorticotrophic hormone secreting tumours of the bronchus ........F
    e- renal faliure ............................................................................................T
  14. Sardul.

    Sardul. Guest

    ** Concerning prostaglandins (PG) .....
    a- Arachidinic acid is a precursor for PG biosynthesis ...........................T
    b- PG synthase (cyclooxygenase) catalyzes arachidinic acid conversion to
    PG endoperoxides ...............T
    Cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin G/H synthase) catalyzes the stepwise conversion of arachidonic acid into two short-lived intermediates, (the PG endoperoxides PGG2 and PGH2) prostaglandin G (PGG) and prostaglandin (PGH). The latter is metabolized to PGs, prostacyclin (PGI2), and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) by the activity of specific enzymes: prostaglandin isomerases for the various PGs, prostacyclin synthase for PGI2, and thromboxane synthase for TXA2

    c- NSAIDS drugs inhibit PG dehydrogenase ...........................................F
    Most NSAIDs act as non-selective inhibitors of the enzyme cyclooxygenase, inhibiting both the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) isoenzymes. Cyclooxygenase catalyses the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxane from arachidonic acid (itself derived from the cellular phospholipid bilayer by phospholipase A2

    d- Mefanemic acid is more potent inhibitor of PG synthesis than aspirin.....T
    As mefenamic acid stops the production of prostaglandins, Aspirin's ability to suppress the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes is due to its non-competitive and irreversible inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme. Cyclooxygenase is required for prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis

    e- PGF2 alpha is excreted unchanged in urine ......................................F
  15. akhil.

    akhil. Guest

    5- The following are actively transported across the placenta from the maternal to fetal circulation .
    e- intrinsic factor ........T.. i think False

    10- Serum alkatine phosphatase activity characteristically is raised in ...
    a- senile osteoporosis ....F ..i think True

    12- The normal metabolic response to an operation include ..
    c- a rise in the plasma sodium level ....F..i think True

    16. Potassium depletion causes
    a- extramuscular acidosis F please explain
  16. Guest

    Guest Guest

    5- Amniotic fluid ....
    a- at term is hyperosmolar compared to fetal plasma ............................F
    b- normally contains maternal and fetal cells ........................................T i think it is false as the question said NORMALLY
    c- contains a higher concentration of alpha fetoprotein at 16 weeks than at term ..........T
    d- contains bilirubin ..........................................................................T
    e- contains phospholipids ..................................................................T

    Maternal cell contamination in amniotic fluid samples is easily detected by in situ hybridization if the karyotype of the fetus differs from the karyotype of the mother. One out of two amniotic fluid samples appears to contain more than 20% maternal cells. Bloody samples often contain even more than 50% maternal cells. Maternal cells can also be identified on the basis of their nuclear morphology. Maternal cell contamination is regularly observed in pregnancies with an anterior placenta, whereas it is rare in posterior placenta pregnancies. The maternal cells are therefore thought to be artificially introduced into the amniotic fluid sample, as a result of placental bleeding during amniocentesis.
    any comment please !!!!!!
  17. Guest

    Guest Guest

    5- The following are actively transported across the placenta from the maternal to fetal circulation .
    e- intrinsic factor ........T.. i think False !!!!

    10- Serum alkatine phosphatase activity characteristically is raised in ...
    a- senile osteoporosis ....F ..i think True
    false it could be normal also , so not characteristic
    12- The normal metabolic response to an operation include ..
    c- a rise in the plasma sodium level ....F..i think True
    false ADH also increase so Maintain Na concentration ein normal.
    16. Potassium depletion causes
    a- extramuscular acidosis F please explain
    i think because loss of K is associated e loss of H ion so Hypokalemia is associated e alkalosis
  18. Guest

    Guest Guest

    14- In one turn of the tricarboxylic acid cycle , three molecules of ..
    a- carbon dioxide (CO2) are produced .................................................F
    b- reduced (NADH) are produced .......................................................T
    c- reduced (FADH2) are produced ......................................................F
    d- guanosine triphosphate (GTP) are produced ....................................F
    e- acetyl co-enzyme A (acetyl COA) are used .....................................F

    ONE MOLECULE OF GTP , FADH2
    TWO MOLECULES OF Co2
    THREE MOLECULES OF NADH
  19. Guest

    Guest Guest

    hello
    any body can help me by sending MRCOG part 1 past paper from 2005-2009 march that is published by DR.khaldom sharif.i am going to attend septamber.

    waiting eagerly
  20. pincer.

    pincer. Guest

    Causes of increase alkaline phosphatase
    1- liver cholestasis .
    2- obstructive jaundice (eg stone ,carcinoma ).
    3- intrahepatic cholestasis (eg drugs such as *chloropromazine ,*cholangitis ,* primary biliary cirrhosis )
    4- obstrcutive phase of hepatistis .
    5- bone (Osteoblastic activity ):
    * Paget's disease .
    * bone metastases ( markedly increase if prostatic in origin )
    * vitamin D deficiency .
    * hyperparathyroidism .
    * growth in childern ( particularly puberty ).
    * bone fractures .
  21. pincer.

    pincer. Guest

    Normal alkaline phosphatase usually in

    1- alcohol consumption ( unless very excessive ) .
    2- Gilbret syndrome .
    3- myeloma ( lesion are destructive without ostoblastic activity )
  22. pincer.

    pincer. Guest

    Symptoms of potassium deficiency appear when the level of potassium in your blood is severely low. These symptoms are usually mild, but can become more severe as the levels drop. They include weakness, heart palpitations, thirst, and abnormal psychological behavior

    Effects / Symptoms
    The effects or symptoms of deficiency of potassium in the human body are visible in the following forms:
    1- Fatigue
    2- Muscular Weakness
    3- Unusual Anxiety and Confusion
    4- Acne and other skin problems like blistering, skin eruptions and dryness of skin
    5- Temporary memory loss or weak memory
    6- Heart Deterioration
    7- Improper digestion leading to hypertension, improper sleep, nervous 8- system deterioration and constipation
    9- Ringing or vibrating noise in ear in some cases
  23. pincer.

    pincer. Guest

    The five main classes of lipoproteins based on their size and density. The higher the ratio of protein to lipid content the higher the lipoprotein density.
    1. Chylomicrons ..
    The largest and least dense lipoproteins. Chylomicrons mainly transport triacylglycerols to adipose tissue and muscle as fatty acids, but also deliver some dietary cholesterol to the liver.
    2. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)
    3. Intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL)
    4. Low density lipoproteins (LDL)
    5. High density lipoproteins (HDL)

    Lipoprotein --------------------Size (nm)----------------------Density (g/ml)

    1-Chylomicron------------------1000------------------------<0.95
    2-VLDL ------------------------70 -----------------------------0.[snip]
    3-IDL --------------------------40 ----------------------------1.01
    4-LDL --------------------------20 -----------------------------1.04
    5-HDL --------------------------10 -----------------------------1.13
  24. pincer.

    pincer. Guest

    1- Lipids
    Over 90% of the surfactant is lipids; around half (50%) of which is dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). This is a phospholipid with two 16-carbon saturated chains and a phosphate group with quaternary amine group attached. Phosphatidylcholine molecules form ~85% of the lipid in surfactant and have saturated acyl chains. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) forms about 11% of the lipids in surfactant, it has unsaturated fatty acid chains that fluidize the lipid monolayer at the interface. Neutral lipids and cholesterol are also present. The components for these lipids diffuse from the blood into type II alveolar cells where they are assembled and packaged for secretion into secretory organelles called lamellar bodies.

    2- Proteins ..
    Proteins make up the remaining 10% of surfactant
  25. gupta.

    gupta. Guest

    Many factors contribute to hyperuricemia, including: genetics, insulin resistance, hypertension, renal insufficiency, obesity, diet, use of diuretics, and consumption of alcoholic beverages.
    1- Increased production...
    a- eating foods that are high in purine .
    b- Increased uric acid levels due to overproduction may also be caused by gout
    c- by a genetic disorder of purine metabolism .
    d- by a genetic disorder of purine metabolism .
    e- destruction of red blood cells, leukemia, or cancer chemotherapy .

    2- Decreased excretion ..
    a- chronic kidney disease .
    b- low thyroid .
    c- toxemia of pregnancy .
    d- The principal drugs that contribute to hyperuricemia by decreased excretion are the primary antiuricosurics. Other drugs and agents include diuretics, salicylates, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, nicotinic acid, cyclosporin,-ethylamino , thiadiazole,and cytotoxic agents .
  26. gupta.

    gupta. Guest

    1- Concerning pH .....
    a- in blood, pH is regulated predominantly by bicarbonate .............. F TRUE


    Yet another mechanism for controlling blood pH involves the use of buffer systems, which guard against sudden shifts in acidity and alkalinity. The pH buffer systems are combinations of a weak acid and weak base that exist in balance under normal pH conditions. The pH buffer systems work chemically to minimize changes in the pH of a solution by adjusting the proportion of acid and base. The most important pH buffer system in the blood involves carbonic acid (a weak acid formed from the carbon dioxide dissolved in blood) and bicarbonate ions (the corresponding weak base).

    THE MECHANISM USED TO CONTROL PH

    1.Buffer Systems
    ◦Carbonic Acid-Bicarbonate Buffer System
    ◦Protein Buffer System
    ◦Phosphate Buffer System

    2.Exhalation of Carbon Dioxide
    3.Elimination of Hydrogen Ions via Kidneys
  27. Guest

    Guest Guest

    The following substances exert their diuretic actions upon the distal convoluted tubules.
    a bendrofluzide t---agreed
    b frusemide f----false(loop diuretic)
    c bumetanide f --- false(loop diuretic)
    d mannitol f :!:
    e alcohol t/f---true,Alcohol inhibits the secretion of ADH, thus increases water loss.ADH increases the permeability of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct.so indirectly alcohol exerts its diuretic action upon DCT.
    mannitol are filtered in the glomerulus, but cannot be reabsorbed. Their presence leads to an increase in the osmolarity of the filtrate. To maintain osmotic balance, water is retained in the urine.
    ( I think D is true as mannitol action take place in all renal tubules any comment please ) :?: ???
  28. Guest

    Guest Guest

    13- The following result in metabolic acidosis .....
    a- ketoacidosis ..................................................................................T
    b- muscular excercise .....................................................................T
    c- renal failure .................................................................................T
    d hypoxia ...............................................T :!
    e- acute respiratory failure..............................T :!:

    Explanation please
    if you mean sever hypoxaemia which can cause metabolic acidosis e high
    anion gap i don t think it is the case in this question. your comment please..
  29. Guest

    Guest Guest

    are these part 2??

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